Lecture 17 December 1

Lecture 17 December 1 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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Today in Comparative Politics Institutional Veto Players Federalism Bicameral legislatures Constitutionalism Veto Player Theory Looking ahead… Final Exam College Avenue Gym Annex Thursday, December 16 8 to 11 am Not in Scott 123!
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Veto power under non-cycling constitutions A group has a veto if whenever xP i y for each of its members i, it can prevent yPx. Under majority rule with only two alternatives, the smallest veto group is half the electorate. When the number of alternatives grows, the size of the smallest veto group shrinks. Today: several institutions that embody such veto power and promote stability
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Federalism A federal state is one in which sovereignty is constitutionally split between at least two territorial levels so that independent governmental units at each level have final authority in at least one policy realm. Non-federal states are known as unitary states . Only about 10% of the world’s countries are federal.
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How do federal systems arise? Two processes: Coming-together federalism Through bargaining, previously sovereign polities voluntarily agree to give up part of their sovereignty. Pool resources and improve collective security or achieve other goals. Holding-together federalism Central government chooses to decentralize its power to subnational governments Goal: defuse secessionist pressures
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Federalism v . Devolution Devolution : conditional granting by a unitary state of powers to subnational governments with the right retained to unilaterally recall or reshape those powers. Ultimate political power resides in central government in unitary states. Regional governments have no constitutional right to their powers. Useful conceptual distinction De jure federalism = Federalism De facto federalism = Decentralization
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Devolution in the United Kingdom After referenda created regional parliaments for Scotland and Wales, elections to the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Senedd took place in 1999. 1998 ‘Good Friday Agreement’ set up a provincial assembly for Northern Ireland. On four separate occasions, the central government in London has suspended the provincial assembly. Scottish Parliament Welsh Senedd Northern Ireland Assembly
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Devolution in India Looks like a federal state, but constitutionally it is a unitary state that has devolved much power to its states and union territories. National legislature can change boundaries of individual states and even create new states by separating territories from existing ones. President can take over a state’s executive and rule directly through an appointed governor.
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Congruence Congruent federalism : territorial units of a federal state share a similar demographic makeup with one another and the country as a whole. E.g., U.S., Brazil
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course 790 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 17 December 1 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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