REVIEW1student - Definitions SOLVENT: substance that is...

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Definitions SOLVENT : substance that is capable of dissolving other substances •S O L U T E S : substances that dissolve IN a solvent O L U T I O N : homogenous mixture of uniform composition When water is the solvent we call the solution: AQUEOUS SOLUTION SOLUTES SOLVENT SOLUTION
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Aqueous Solutions I CONCENTRATIONS : the ratio of amount of ingredient to amount of water solution - % : parts per hundred : 1) weight percent Æ x g/100g 2) volume percent Æ x g/100mL - ppm : parts per million : Æ xg/1000000g ! 1000g of water =1L ! = xg/1000L = x mg/L - ppb : parts per billion : Æ xg/1000000000g = xg/1000000L = x μg/L
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Aqueous Solutions II - MOLARITY : number of MOLES of solute present in 1 LITER of solution Æ x mol/L MOLE : 1 mol: 6.022 x 10 particles MOLECULAR WEIGHT : is the weight of 1 mol of an atom or molecule [g/mol] Advantage of molarity: A 1 molar solution of any solute contains the same number of chemical units (atom/molecule) as any other 1 molar solution. 23
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VOLUMETRIC FLASK : Type of glassware that contains a precise volume when filled to the mark on the neck
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Water as a Solvent Physical properties are different compared to molecules with a similar molecular weight: (methan, carbon monoxide, etc) – LIQIUD (at room temperature) – HIGH BOILING POINT – When it freezes it extends its volume (ice float on water, ice cubes float on your soda!) Æ LOWER DENSITY WHY?????
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CHEMICAL STRUCTURE : ELECTRONEGATIVITY : a measure of an atom’s attraction to the electrons it shares in a COVALENT bond POLAR COVALENT BOND : a covalent bond in which the electrons are NOT equally shared ~> rather displaced to the more electronegative atom (the greater the difference, the more polar) Æ INTRAMOLECULAR FORCE : a force WITHIN a molecule Periodic Table
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Polarity of Water
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carbon dioxide: Æ it has polar bonds too! ~~> what is the difference to water?
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REVIEW1student - Definitions SOLVENT: substance that is...

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