neuralnets[1] - Neural Networks CPS 170 Ron Parr...

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Unformatted text preview: Neural Networks CPS 170 Ron Parr Neural Network Mo6va6on •  •  •  •  Human brains are only known example of actual intelligence Individual neurons are slow, boring Brains succeed by using massive parallelism Idea: Copy what works •  Raises many issues: –  Is the computa6onal metaphor suited to the computa6onal hardware? –  How do we know if we are copying the important part? –  Are we aiming too low? 1 Why Neural Networks? Maybe computers should be more brain ­like: Computers Brains Computational Units 108 gates/CPU 1011 neurons Storage Units Cycle Time 1010 bits RAM 1013 bits HD 10-9 S 1011 neurons 1014 synapses 10-3 S Bandwidth 1010 bits/s* 1014 bits/s Compute Power 1010 Ops/s 1014 Ops/s Comments on Jaguar (world’s fastest supercomputer as of 4/10) •  •  •  •  •  •  2,332 Teraflops 1015 Ops/s (Jaguar) vs. 1014 Ops/s (brain) 224,256 processor cores 300 TB RAM (1015 bits) 10 PB Disk storage 7 Megawa]s power (~$500K/year in electricity [my es6mate]) •  ~$100M cost •  4400 sq d size (very large house) •  Pictures and other details: h]p:// 2 More Comments on Modern Supercomputers vs. Brains •  What is wrong with this picture? –  Weight –  Size –  Power Consump6on •  What is missing? –  S6ll can’t replicate human abili6es (though vastly exceeds human abili6es in many areas) –  Are we running the wrong programs? –  Is the architecture well suited to the programs we might need to run? Ar6ficial Neural Networks •  Develop abstrac'on of func6on of actual neurons •  Simulate large, massively parallel ar6ficial neural networks on conven6onal computers •  Some have tried to build the hardware too •  Try to approximate human learning, robustness to noise, robustness to damage, etc. 3 Use of neural networks •  Classic examples –  Trained to pronounce English •  Training set: Sliding window over text, sounds •  95% accuracy on training set •  78% accuracy on test set –  Trained to recognize handwri]en digits w/>99% accuracy –  Trained to drive (Pomerleau’s no ­hands across America) •  Current examples –  Credit risk evalua6on, OCR systems, voice recogni6on, etc. (though not necessarily the best method for any of these tasks) –  Built in to many sodware packages, e.g., matlab Neural Network Lore •  Neural nets have been adopted with an almost religious fervor within the AI community  ­ several 6mes •  Oden ascribed near magical powers by people, usually those who know the least about computa6on or brains •  For most AI people, magic is gone, but neural nets remain extremely interes6ng and useful mathema6cal objects 4 Ar6ficial Neurons xj wj,i zi node/ neuron h ai = h(∑w j,i x j ) j ai is the ac6va6on level of neuron I h can be any func6on, but usually a smoothed step func6on € Threshold Func6ons 1.5 1 0.5 h(x)=sgn(x) (perceptron) 0  ­0.5  ­1  ­1.5  ­10  ­5 0 5 1 10 0.5 h(x)=tanh(x) or 1/(1+exp( ­x)) (logis6c sigmoid) 0  ­0.5  ­1  ­10  ­5 0 5 10 5 Network Architectures •  Cyclic vs. Acyclic –  Cyclic is tricky, but more biologically plausible •  Hard to analyze in general •  May not be stable •  Need to assume latches to avoid race condi6ons –  Hopfield nets: special type of cyclic net useful for associa6ve memory •  Single layer (perceptron) •  Mul6ple layer Feedforward Networks •  We consider acyclic networks •  One or more computa6onal layers •  En6re network can be viewed as compu6ng a complex non ­linear func6on •  Typical uses in learning: –  Classifica6on (usually involving complex pa]erns) –  General con6nuous func6on approxima6on 6 Special Case: Perceptron xj wj node/ neuron Y h h is a simple step func6on (sgn) Perceptron Learning •  •  •  •  •  •  We are given a set of inputs x(1)…x(n) t(1)…t(n) is a set of target outputs (boolean) { ­1,1} w is our set of weights output of perceptron = wTx Perceptron_error(x(i), w) =  ­wTx(i) * t(i) Goal: Pick w to op6mize: min ∑ perceptron _ error ( x ( i), w) w i∈misclassified € 7 Update Rule Repeat un6l convergence: ∀ i ∈misclassified ∀ : w j ← w j + αx j( i)t ( i) j “Learning Rate” (can be any constant) € •  i iterates over samples •  j iterates over weights h]p:// Perceptron Learning The Good News First •  For func6ons that are representable using the perceptron architecture (more on this later): –  Perceptron learning rule converges to correct classifier for any choice of a –  Online classifica6on possible for streaming data (very efficient implementa6on) •  Posi6ve perceptron results set off an explosion of research on neural neworks 8 Perceptron Learning Now the Bad News •  Perceptron computes a linear func6on of its inputs, •  Asks if the input lies above a line (hyperplane, in general) •  Representable func6ons are func6ons that are “linearly separable”; i.e., there exists a line (hyperplane) that separates the posi6ve and nega6ve examples •  If the training data are not linearly separable: –  No guarantees –  Perceptron learning rule may produce oscilla6ons Visualizing Linearly Separable Functions Is red linearly separable from green? Are the circles linearly separable from the squares? 9 Observa6ons •  Linear separability is fairly weak •  We have other tricks: –  Func6ons that are not linearly separable in one space, may be linearly separable in another space –  If we engineer our inputs to our neural network, then we change the space in which we are construc6ng linear separators –  Every func6on has a linear separator (in some space) •  Perhaps other network architectures will help Separability in One Dimension If we have just a single input x, there is no way a perceptron can correctly classifiy these data x=0 Copyright © 2001, 2003, Andrew W. Moore 10 Harder 1 ­dimensional dataset Remember how permi•ng non ­ linear basis func6ons made linear regression so much nicer? Let’s permit them here too, using 1,x,x2 as inputs to the perceptron x=0 Copyright © 2001, 2003, Andrew W. Moore Mul6layer Networks •  Once people realized how simple perceptrons were, they lost interest in neural networks for a while (feature engineering turned out to be imprac6cal in many cases) •  Mul6layer networks turn out to be much more expressive (with a smoothed step func6on) –  Use sigmoid, e.g., tanh(wTx) or logis6c sigmoid: 1/(1+exp( ­x)) –  With 2 layers, can represent any con6nuous func6on –  With 3 layers, can represent many discon6nuous func6ons •  Tricky part: How to adjust the weights 11 Smoothing Things Out •  Idea: Do gradient descent on a smooth error func6on •  Error func6on is sum of squared errors •  Consider a single training example first E = 0.5error ( X ( i ),w )2 ∂E ∂ E ∂a j = ∂w ij ∂a j ∂w ij ∂E =δj ∂a j € ∂a j = zi ∂w ij ai z i i ∂E = δ jzi ∂w ij a j = ∑w ijzi i j wij zj z j = h(a j ) € € Propaga6ng Errors •  For output units (assuming no weights on outputs) ∂E =δj = y −t ∂a j a j = ∑w ijzi i ai wij •  For hidden units Chain rule € i j zj=output z j = f (a j ) € ∂E ∂E ∂a k ∂E ∂h = δi = ∑ =∑ w ki i = h' (ai )∑w kiδ k ∂ €ai k ∂a k ∂a i k ∂a k k ∂ai All upstream nodes from i € 12 Differen6a6ng h •  Recall the logis6c sigmoid: ex 1 h( x ) = = 1 + ex 1 + e−x € e−x 1 1 − h( x ) = = 1 + e−x 1 + ex •  Differen6a6ng: € e −x 1 e −x h' ( x ) = = h( x )(1 − h( x )) −x 2 = −x (1 + e ) (1 + e ) (1 + e − x ) € Pu•ng it together •  Apply input x to network (sum for mul6ple inputs) –  Compute all ac6va6on levels –  Compute final output (forward pass) •  Compute δ for output units δ = y − t •  Backpropagate δ’s to hidden units ∂E ∂a k δj = ∑ = h' (a j )∑w kjδ k € k ∂a k ∂a j k •  Compute gradient update: € ∂E = δ jai ∂w ij € 13 Summary of Gradient Update •  Gradient calcula6on, parameter update have recursive formula6on •  Decomposes into: –  Local message passing –  No transcendentals: •  h’(x)=1 ­h(x)2 for tanh(x) •  h’(x)=h(x)(1 ­h(x)) for logis6c sigmoid •  Highly parallelizable •  Biologically plausible(?) •  Celebrated backpropaga'on algorithm Good News •  Can represent any con6nuous func6on with two layers (1 hidden) •  Can represent essen6ally any func6on with 3 layers •  (But how many hidden nodes?) •  Mul6layer nets are a universal approxima6on architecture with a highly parallelizable training algorithm 14 Back ­prop Issues •  •  •  •  Backprop = gradient descent on an error func6on Func6on is nonlinear (= powerful) Func6on is nonlinear (= local minima) Big nets: –  Many parameters •  Many op6ma •  Slow gradient descent •  Risk of overfi•ng –  Biological plausibility ≠ Electronic plausibility •  Many NN experts became experts in numerical analysis (by necessity) Neural Network Tricks •  Many gradient descent accelera6on tricks •  Early stopping (prevents overfi•ng) •  Methods of enforcing transforma6on invariance (e.g. if you have symmetric inputs) –  Modify error func6on –  Transform/augment training data –  Weight sharing •  Handcraded network architectures 15 Neural Nets in Prac6ce •  Many applica6ons for pa]ern recogni6on tasks •  Very powerful representa6on –  Can overfit –  Can fail to fit with too many parameters, poor features •  Very widely deployed AI technology, but –  Few open research ques6ons (Best way to get a machine learning paper rejected: “Neural Network” in 6tle.) –  Connec6on to biology s6ll uncertain –  Results are hard to interpret •  “Second best way to solve any problem” –  Can do just about anything w/enough twiddling –  Now third or fourth to SVMs, boos6ng, and ??? 16 ...
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