Lecture 2 - 8th Ed. Ch. 2

Lecture 2 - 8th Ed. Ch. 2 - Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Bonding...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Bonding & Properties Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure & Bonding Jian-Min Zuo, Miyoung Kim, Michael OKeefe & John Spence Arizona State University, 1999; Published in Nature Chapter 2 - Issues to Address Structure of the atom? What causes/promotes bonding? What types of bonding are there? What properties are controlled by bonding? Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure atom electrons 9.11 x 10-31 kg protons neutrons atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species A : atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10-27 kg Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties: 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical 5) Mechanical Chapter 2 - Important Numbers Mass of proton & neutron = 1.66 x 10-24 gm Charge on proton = +1.60 x 10-19 C Mass of electron = 0.911 x 10-27 gm Charge on electron = -1.60 x 10-19 C Avogadro's number = 6.023 x 10 +23 (atoms/mole) Chapter 2 - Importance of Electronic Structure Outer ( valence ) electrons easiest to remove, causing the atom to be ionized Inner electrons tightly bound Valence electrons are the ones participating in bonding Quantum Mechanics describes allowed energy states Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure Bohr model: Electrons orbiting the massive nucleus Nucleus contains protons (charged) & neutrons (uncharged) Principal quantum numbers represent solutions to Schrdinger's equation Z= # protons, N= # neutrons, Atomic Mass = A = Z + N orbital electrons: n = principal quantum number n=3 2 1 Nucleus: Chapter 2 - Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers. Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,, n-1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (-l to +l) m s = spin , - Chapter 2 - Electron Energy States 1 s 2 s 2 p K-shell n = 1 L-shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M-shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N-shell n = 4 have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons... Chapter 2 - E vs. Principal Quantum Number n Chapter 2 - Designation of Electron Shells & Subshells Chapter 2 - Atomic Orbitals as Probability Distribution Functions Chapter 2 - Concept of Degeneracy p orbitals are 3-fold degenerate: 3 different orientations with the same Energy as controlled by the principal quantum number n Chapter 2 - The Hydrogen Atom Chapter 2 - Where do the Quantum Numbers Come From? (Example Hydrogen Atom) The solution of the Schroedinger Equation for hydrogen yields: Quantum numbers . Quantum numbers ....
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course MSE 14:635:407 taught by Professor Dr.e.korayakdoğan during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 2 - 8th Ed. Ch. 2 - Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Bonding...

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