Exam1 - ISP 221 Exam I Review Some important pages to read...

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ISP 221 Exam I Review Some important pages to read in Geosystems (6 th or 7 th 5-12, 40-46, 50-62, 76-82, 87-88, 112 -114, 148-159, 166-171. editions): ***************** Atmosphere - consists of the gaseous parts of the earth; hydrogen, oxygen, helium, etc. (also water vapor) Biosphere - all the living stuff on the planet; bacteria, algae, trees, lizards, etc. Energy cycle - enters the earth as light, then passes through different components of the system (results in everything that happens in the earth’s system); potential, kinetic, and electrical energy Geosphere - all the solid stuff that makes up the earth; rock, soil, etc. Geothermal energy - the energy in steam and hot water heated by subsurface magma near groundwater; the heat from Earth’s interior Gravitational energy - the effect of gravity on energy Hydrosphere - all the wet stuff; oceans, lakes, streams, etc. Isolated system- Total energy and mass cannot enter or exit, only move around. Law (scientific)- Open system/closed system - The earth is an OPEN system for energy, but a CLOSED system for matter (Energy in, energy out; Matter recycles) Positive feedback - amplifies or encourages responses in a system Negative feedback - tends to slow or damped response in a system; promotes self-regulation in a system; far more common than positive feedback in living systems Reservoir - Each component if the earth system acts as a reservoir for matter and energy (temporary arrangement) Calorie - 1 watt = .239 calorie/second; 1 calorie applied to 1 gram of water raises its temperature 1 degree C (Kilocalorie: calorie = 1000 calories); 173,000 terawatts = 4.14 x 10^16 calories/second Science - the study of the natural world Scientific method - an approach that uses applied common sense in an organized and objective manner; based on observation, generalization, formulation, and testing of a hypothesis, and ultimately the development of a theory System - any ordered, interrelated set of material or items existing, separate from the environment, or within a boundary; energy transformations and energy and matter storage and retrieval occur within a system Theory - theory of natural selection, concept of evolution, underlies all of modern biology (without him, it would make no sense), Galapagos Islands Blackbody radiator - absorbs all the radiant energy that it receives and subsequently emits all that it receives Light - a wave and a particle C - (Velocity of light) = wavelength x frequency
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Electromagnetic radiation - light, can’t feel a light, but we can see it (electromagnetic energy or radiation), it is the form that we receive the energy from the sun (important)
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Exam1 - ISP 221 Exam I Review Some important pages to read...

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