ISP 221 Exam I Review
Some important pages to read in Geosystems (6
5-12, 40-46, 50-62, 76-82, 87-88, 112 -114, 148-159, 166-171.
- consists of the gaseous parts of the earth; hydrogen, oxygen, helium, etc. (also water vapor)
- all the living stuff on the planet; bacteria, algae, trees, lizards, etc.
enters the earth as light, then passes through different components of the system (results in
everything that happens in the earth’s system); potential, kinetic, and electrical energy
- all the solid stuff that makes up the earth; rock, soil, etc.
- the energy in steam and hot water heated by subsurface magma near groundwater; the heat
from Earth’s interior
- the effect of gravity on energy
- all the wet stuff; oceans, lakes, streams, etc.
Total energy and mass cannot enter or exit, only move around.
Open system/closed system
- The earth is an OPEN system for energy, but a CLOSED system for matter (Energy in,
energy out; Matter recycles)
- amplifies or encourages responses in a system
- tends to slow or damped response in a system; promotes self-regulation in a system; far more
common than positive feedback in living systems
- Each component if the earth system acts as a reservoir for matter and energy (temporary arrangement)
- 1 watt = .239 calorie/second; 1 calorie applied to 1 gram of water raises its temperature 1 degree C
(Kilocalorie: calorie = 1000 calories); 173,000 terawatts = 4.14 x 10^16 calories/second
- the study of the natural world
- an approach that uses applied common sense in an organized and objective manner; based on
observation, generalization, formulation, and testing of a hypothesis, and ultimately the development of a theory
- any ordered, interrelated set of material or items existing, separate from the environment, or within a
boundary; energy transformations and energy and matter storage and retrieval occur within a system
- theory of natural selection, concept of evolution, underlies all of modern biology (without him, it would
make no sense), Galapagos Islands
- absorbs all the radiant energy that it receives and subsequently emits all that it receives
- a wave and a particle
C - (Velocity of light)
= wavelength x frequency