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Exam2 - Important pages to read in Geosystems...

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Important pages to read in Geosystems: 3-20,47-57,61-68, 89-103,115-136,141-170,174-202,207-232,245-248,261-262,277- 283,497-507,531-538,542-545,555-558. ***************** Atmosphere- consists of the gaseous parts of the earth; hydrogen, oxygen, helium, etc. (also water vapor) Energy cycle - enters the earth as light, then passes through different components of the system (results in everything that happens in the earth s system); potential, kinetic, and electrical energy Hydrologic cycle - a simplified model of the flow of water, ice, and water vapor from place to place. Water flows through the atmosphere, across the land, where is is also stored as ice, and within groundwater, solar energy empowers the cycle Hydrosphere - all the wet stuff; oceans, lakes, streams, etc. Negative feedback- tends to slow or damped response in a system; promotes self- regulation in a system; far more common than positive feedback in living systems Positive feedback- amplifies or encourages responses in a system Reservoir - Each component if the earth system acts as a reservoir for matter and energy (temporary arrangement) Blackbody radiator - absorbs all the radiant energy that it receives and subsequently emits all that it receives Ecliptic- the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year, appearing to move eastwards on an imaginary spherical surface Electromagnetic radiation - light, can t feel a light, but we can see it (electromagnetic energy or radiation), it is the form that we receive the energy from the sun (important) Aquifer - a body of rock that conducts groundwater in usable amounts; a permeable layer of rock Drainage basin - the basic spatial geomorphic unit of a river system; distinguished from a neighboring basin by ridges and highlands that form divides, marking the limits of the catchment area of the drainage basin or its watershed Groundwater - water beneath the surface that is beyond the soil-root zone; a major source of potable water Lake - A large, inland body of standing water; 20% of the Earth s fresh water; 90% of the US fresh water (The Great Lakes) Water table - the upper surface of groundwater; that contact point between the zone of saturation and aeration in an unconfined aquifer Albedo - combined reflectivity of any planet
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Glacier- a large mass of perennial ice resting on land or floating shelflike in the sea adjacent to the land; formed from the accumulation and recrystallization of snow, which then flows slowly under the pressure of its own weight and the pull of gravity glacier ice- a hardened form of ice, very dense in comparison to normal snow or firn mass balance- sea ice- .1% total volume, 67% permanent ice cover Reflects and insulates 1-10 cm thick; freezes from bottom, lost to atmosphere Positive feedback mechanism o Increase in sea ice => increase in albedo => increased cooling o Decrease in sea ice => reduced albedo => increased warming Global Ocean Circulation - Sinks in atlantic; rises in pacific Coriolis Effect - the apparent deflection of moving objects (wind, ocean currents, missiles) from traveling in a straight path, in proportion to the speed of earth s rotation at different latitudes. Deflection is to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the
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