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Final - ISP-221 Final Exam Study Guide(R Brandenburg Energy...

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ISP-221 Final Exam Study Guide (R. Brandenburg) Energy – The capacity or ability to do work. Work – A force applied over a distance, or the equivalent. Atmosphere - Consists of the gaseous parts of the earth; hydrogen, oxygen, helium, etc. (also water vapor) Biosphere - All the living stuff on the planet. (Bacteria, algae, trees, lizards, etc.) Geosphere - all the solid stuff that makes up the earth; rock, soil, etc. Geothermal energy - the energy in steam and hot water heated by subsurface magma near groundwater; the heat from Earth’s interior. Gravitational energy - The effect of gravity on energy. Hydrosphere - All the wet stuff. (Oceans, lakes, streams, etc.) Theory - theory of natural selection, concept of evolution, underlies all of modern biology (without him, it would make no sense), Galapagos Islands. Open system/closed system - The earth is an OPEN system for energy, but a CLOSED system for matter (Energy in, energy out; Matter recycles) Positive feedback - amplifies or encourages responses in a system. Negative feedback - tends to slow or damped response in a system; promotes self-regulation in a system; far more common than positive feedback in living systems. Reservoir - Each component if the earth system acts as a reservoir for matter and energy (temporary arrangement) Calorie - 1 watt = .239 calorie/second; 1 calorie applied to 1 gram of water raises its temperature 1 degree C (Kilocalorie: calorie = 1000 calories); 173,000 terawatts = 4.14 x 10^16 calories/second Science - the study of the natural world Scientific method - an approach that uses applied common sense in an organized and objective manner; based on observation, generalization, formulation, and testing of a hypothesis, and ultimately the development of a theory System - any ordered, interrelated set of material or items existing, separate from the environment, or within a boundary; energy transformations and energy and matter storage and retrieval occur within a system Theory - theory of natural selection, concept of evolution, underlies all of modern biology (without him, it would make no sense), Galapagos Islands
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Blackbody radiator - absorbs all the radiant energy that it receives and subsequently emits all that it receives Light - a wave and a particle C - (Velocity of light) = wavelength x frequency Electromagnetic radiation - light, can’t feel a light, but we can see it (electromagnetic energy or radiation), it is the form that we receive the energy from the sun (important) Luminosity - 9 x 10^25 cal/sec (energy output of the sun) Atom - smallest unit of matter Element (chemical) - matter Energy level – Molecules, through complex interactions, absorb incoming radiation at certain frequencies or wavelengths raising the energy levels of the molecules. The molecules then spontaneously readmit electromagnetic energy, but in random directions Albedo - combined reflectivity of any planet (earth ~ 33%, moon ~ 3%) Amplitude - how high the wave gets/brightness Wavelength - Distance between 2 crests Photoelectric effect - 486 nm light hooked up to meter, collect electrons and get 10 x 10^-20 calories (none have less) Heat (heat energy)
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