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APES notes chapter 2

APES notes chapter 2 - APES notes Chapter 2 What is science...

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APES notes Chapter 2 What is science? o Endeavor to discover how nature works and to use that knowledge to make predictions about what is likely to happen in nature. o Based on the assumption that events in the natural world follow orderly cause and effect patterns that can be understood through careful observation, measurements, experimentation and modeling Inductive vs. deductive reasoning o Inductive (bottom-up) Using specific observations to make a generalization o Deductive (top-down) Using logic to arrive at a specific conclusion based on a generalization or premise Paradigm shift o When new theories overthrow old ones o When a majority of scientists in a field accept a new framework for theories and laws in a particular field Frontier science o When ideas are not agreed upon by the majority and are often considered unreliable o In this stage it is normal for people to disagree Reliable science o Consists of data, hypotheses, theories and laws that are widely accepted by scientists Unreliable science o Results that are presented as reliable but have not gone under rigors of peer review or were discarded by peer review Matter o Anything with mass and volume o Made up of elements Fundamental substance that has a unique set of properties and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means Most matter is composed of compounds which is a combination of two or more different elements held together in fixed proportions o Most basic building block of matter is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of matter into which an element can be divided and still retain its chemical properties Atomic theory All elements are made up of atoms Protons (+), electrons (-) and neutrons Nucleus
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An extremely small and dense center\ Molecule A combo of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by forces called chemical bonds Organic compounds o Contain at least two carbon atoms combined with atoms of one or more other elements o All other compounds are inorganic o Known organic compounds Hydrocarbons Compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms Ex) CH 4 the main component of natural gas; also octane (C 8 H 18 ) a major component of gasoline Chlorinated hydrocarbons Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms Ex) DDT Simple Carbohydrates Certain types of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms Ex) glucose which most plants and animals break down in their cells to obtain energy o Organic polymers the 4 macromolecules essential for life Complex carbohydrates Such as cellulose and starch which consist of two or more monomers of simple sugars such as glucose Proteins Formed by monomers called amino acids Nucleic acids DNA and RNA) Formed by monomers called nucleotides Lipids Include fats and waxes Cells o Fundamental structural units of life Genes o Certain sequences of nucleotides o Trait
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APES notes chapter 2 - APES notes Chapter 2 What is science...

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