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Unformatted text preview: APES Notes Chapter 16 Core Case Study: Icelands vision of a renewable-energy economy o Iceland is very close to the North pole and three-fourths of this island consists of volcanoes, glaciers, and hot springs, most of Icelands 319,000 people live in its capital city of Reykjavik o Has 20 active volcanoes because it is located on boundary of Eurasian and North American tectonic plates o Gets three-fourths of its overall energy and almost all of its electricity from two renewable sources Geothermal energy from superheated groundwater and steam found close to its surface This energy supplies electricity and provides heat for 80% of Icelands houses and for producing vegetables in greenhouses Hydroelectric power o Imports oil to run cars, some factories, and fishing boats that help supply 60% of its income because it has no fossil fuel deposits o By 2050-2060 Iceland has plans to eliminate its dependence on nonrenewable oil and to become the worlds first country to run its economy entirely on renewable energy o Bragi Arnason proposed that the country could eliminate its fossil fuel imports and strengthen its economy by using electricity produced by its ample geothermal, hydroelectric, and wind power resources to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen gases o The clean-burning hydrogen could then be used to power the countrys transportation system, factories, and fishing boats. o Burning hydrogen fuel avoids emissions of CO 2 and other air pollutants that are produced when fossil fuels are burned because the only byproduct is water vapor o In 1999 Daimler, Royal Dutch Shell, Norsk Hydro and Icelandic New Energy announced plans to work together to turn Bragi Arnasons dream into reality o Between 2003 and 2007, the station fueled three-prototype fuel-cell buses provided by Daimler o In 2008 the station began fueling a fleet of 10 Toyota Prius test vehicles converted to burn hydrogen in fuel cells We waste huge amounts of energy o The world will rely increasingly on a mix of renewable energy resources o Energy Conservation A decrease in energy use based primarily on reducing unnecessary waste of energy o The best way to conserve energy is to improve energy efficiency The measure of how much work we can get from each unit of energy we use Ex) people who drive energy-efficient cars use less fuel per kilometer than do those who drive less efficient cars o 84% of all commercial energy used in the United States is wasted o About 41% of this energy is wasted unavoidably because of the degradation of energy quality imposed by the second law of thermodynamics o Another reason is that many people live and work in leaky poorly insulated, badly designed buildings o 43% is wasted unnecessarily, mostly due to the inefficiency of incandescent lights, furnaces, industrial motors, coal and nuclear power plants, most motor vehicles and other devices o Unnecessary energy waste costs the United States an average of about $570,000 per minute...
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- Spring '08