APES Notes Chapter 17

APES Notes Chapter 17 - APES Notes Chapter 17 Core Case...

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APES Notes Chapter 17 Core Case Study: The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic o The spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a serious global health threat o The virus itself is not deadly, but cripples the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and rare forms of cancer such as Kaposi’s sarcoma o The virus is transmitted from one person to another by unsafe sex, sharing of needles by drug users, infected mothers who pass the virus on to their offspring before or during birth, and exposure to infected blood o Since the HIV virus was identified in 1981, this viral infection has spread exponentially around the globe. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2007, about 33 million people worldwide (1.1 million in the United States) were infected with HIV. Almost two-thirds of them were in African countries south of the Sahara desert o In 2007, about 2.5 million people (58,000 to 63,000 in the United States) became infected with HIV---an average of 6,800 new cases per day---half of them between the ages of 15 and 24. o Within 7-10 years, at least half of all HIV-infected people will develop AIDS. This long incubation period means that infected people often spread the virus for several years without knowing they are infected o Currently there is no vaccine to prevent HIV and no cure for AIDS. If you get AIDS, you will most certainly die from it. Drugs help some infected people live longer, but 90% of those suffering from AIDS cannot afford to use these drugs o Between 1981 and 2007, more than 25 million people (584,000 in the US) died of AIDS related diseases o AIDS has reduced the life expectancy of the 750 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa from 62-47---40 years in the seven countries most severely affected by AIDS o The premature deaths of young productive adults leads to diminished education and health care, decreased food production and economic development, and disintegrating families o Many children are orphaned because of AIDS. These orphans are forced into labor or the sex trade Risks are usually expressed as probabilities o Risk A risk is the probability of suffering harm from a hazard than can cause injury, disease, death, economic loss or damage Usually expressed in terms of probability Mathematical statement about how likely it is that harm will be suffered from a hazard
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o Probability vs. possibility Possibility/possible An event could happen No numbers involved Probability Gives us an estimate of the likelihood of such an event Numbers are involved o Risk assessment Scientific process of using statistical methods to estimate how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health or to the environment Scientists use risk assessment to estimate the probability of a risk, to compare it with the probability of other risks, and to establish priorities for avoiding or managing risks
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APES Notes Chapter 17 - APES Notes Chapter 17 Core Case...

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