APES notes Chapter 22

APES notes Chapter 22 - APES notes Chapter 22 Case Study:...

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APES notes Chapter 22 Case Study: The Ecocity Concept in Curitiba, Brazil o Urban planners envision large portions of the growing human population living in more environmentally sustainable cities, called ecocities or green cities o Planners in this city decided in 1969 to focus on an inexpensive and efficient mass transit rather than on the car o Curitiba has the world’s best bus system, in which clean and modern buses transport about 72% of the population every day throughout the city along express lanes dedicated to buses o Only high-rise apartment buildings are allowed near major bus routes and each building must devote its bottom two floors to stores---a practice that reduces the need for residents to travel. o Cars are banned 49 blocks in the center of downtown which has a network of pedestrian walkways connected to bus stations, parks, and bicycle paths running through most of the city o Curitiba uses less energy per person and has less emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants o Recycles roughly 70% of its paper and 60% of its metal, glass, and plastic, which is collected from households three times a week o Recovered materials are sold to the more than 500 major industries; most of these businesses are located in an industrial park outside the city limits. o The poor receive free medical and dental, child care and job training and 40 feeding centers are available for street children o Build-it yourself program Gives a poor family a plot of land, building materials, two trees and an hour’s consultation with an architect o Urban planning and sustainability made possible by Jaime Lerner o Solutions Bus rapid transit system This system moves a large number of passengers rapidly because each of the five major spokes has two express lanes used only by buses. Urbanization o The creation and growth of urban areas or cities and their surrounding developed land o Measured as the percentage of the people in a country or in the world living in urban areas Urban growth o The rate of increase of urban populations o The first cities emerged 6000 years ago and today 79% of Americans and almost 50% of the world’s people live in urban areas. Urban areas grow in two ways o Natural increase (more births than deaths)
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o Immigration, mostly from rural areas Rural people are pulled to urban areas in search of jobs, food, housing, educational opportunities, better health care, entertainment and freedom from religious, racial and political conflicts Some are pushed from rural to urban areas by factors such as poverty, lack of land for growing food, declining agricultural jobs, famine, and war. People are also pushed and pulled to cities by government policies that favor urban areas over rural areas Ex) Developing countries like India and China tend to spend most of their budgets on economic development and job creation in urban areas and especially in capital cities where their leaders live Some gov’ts establish lower food prices in urban areas
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APES notes Chapter 22 - APES notes Chapter 22 Case Study:...

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