2 Problem set 3

2 Problem set 3 - BILD 2, Multicellular Life—Problem...

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Unformatted text preview: BILD 2, Multicellular Life—Problem set #3 1. How do the characteristics of chemical synapses allow the nervous system to respond flexibly to environmental conditions? 2. What cellular structures make up a: a. a ganglion? b. a nerve? c. a neuromuscular junction? 3.a. What is an afferent neuron? b. What is an efferent neuron? c. What is an interneuron? d. What is an excitatory neuron? 4. Where in the cerebral cortex : a. Is visual information sent? b. Is auditory information sent? c. Is olfactory information sent? d. Is motor output initiated and coordinated? 5. As you work this problem set, what parts of your cerebral cortex are you using? 6. a. What distinguishes the autonomic nervous system from the voluntary (or somatic) nervous system? b. Compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system with regard to: i. Target organs. ii. Effect on heart rate. BILD 2, Multicellular Life—Problem set #3 Page 2 iii. The number of neurons that connect the CNS with target organs. iv. Location of the cell body of the first neuron in the chain that connects the CNS with target organs. 7. a. What does “primary somatosensory cortex” mean? b. In the somatosensory cortex, describe the map: i.e., where does information sent to the most lateral cortex originate? Where does information sent to the midline originate? c. What does “primary motor cortex” mean? d. In the primary motor cortex, describe the map: i.e. what body part(s) does information that originates in the most lateral cortex control? What body part(s) does information that originates in the motor cortex closes to the midline control? 8. a. What does the term “long ­term potentiation” mean? b. BRIEFLY describe the process of establishing long ­term potentiation, including all of the important components (e.g., neurons, ion channels, neurotransmitters, ions, etc.) c. BRIEFLY describe how an addiction is established, including all of the important components (e.g., neurons, ion channels, neurotransmitters, ions, etc.) 9. a. How do sensory neurons convey information about the intensity of a stimulus? b. How would this “code” be received by a postsynaptic neuron? c. No sensory neurons synapse on cortical cells, but sensory perception takes place in the cortex. What is required if any sensory signal is to be perceived? 10. a. Describe the mechanism by which hair cells in the cochlea respond to a sound stimulus. b. Describe the mechanism by which a response in a hair cell is conveyed to the next neuron in this sensory pathway. c. How would intensity of a sound be conveyed? 11. a. Describe the mechanism by which retinal photoreceptors respond to light energy. BILD 2, Multicellular Life—Problem set #3 Page 3 b. Describe the mechanism by which a response in a photoreceptor is conveyed to the next neuron in this sensory pathway, and name this type of neuron. c. What does “primary visual cortex” mean? Where in the brain is the primary visual cortex located? d. Describe the pathway by which visual information travels between photoreceptors and primary visual cortex. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course BILD 2 taught by Professor Schroeder during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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