Absolutism in England - Absolutism in England? I. I. James...

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Absolutism in England? I. I. James I (1603-1625) a. a. Background a.i. i. Son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots; as James VI, had governed Scotland for 35 years; political union of Scotland and England (to form “Great Britain”) still over 100 years away a.ii. ii. Inherited the throne of England when his cousin, Elizabeth I, died childless a.iii. iii. Inaugurated the Stuart line, which replaced the Tudors b. b. Why was he so unpopular? b.i. i. Believed in Divine Right monarchy (Trew Law of Free Monarchies ), going against English tradition of parliamentary checks on the monarch b.ii. ii. did not have Elizabeth’s flair for politics, her ability to get what she wanted out of Parliament while making Parliament believe that it was in control b.iii. iii. Tactless, stubbornly conceited, lacked common sense b.iv. iv. Followed a foreign policy of friendship with Catholic Spain b.v. v. Taxed the middle class heavily (Elizabeth had left a sizable debt), but neglected to further trade and commerce b.vi. vi. Antagonized Parliament by levying taxes without its consent b.vii. vii. Refused to allow Parliament a voice in foreign affairs b.viii. viii. Suspended Parliament from 1611- 1621
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b.ix. ix. Violated English law by imprisoning people without a fair trial, and securing confessions through torture b.x. x. His strong Scottish burr was a constant reminder that he was a foreigner . II. II. Charles I (1625-1649) a. a. Many of the same problems as his father had b. b. Religious strife b.i. i. High Anglicans – wanted more Roman Catholic ceremonies. William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, attempted to bring pageantry back, causing widespread fear that Catholicism will be re- imposed, and ultimately causing the Scottish to rebel. b.ii. ii. Puritans – Protestants who wanted to “purify” the Anglican church of Catholic practices b.iii. iii. Presbyterians – Scottish Calvinists wanted a national church without bishops b.iv. iv. Separatists – another group of Protestants who wanted completely independent congregations c. c. war (against French – 30 Year’s War) III. III. Parliament asserted its authority against the crown a. a. Petition of Rights (1628) a.i. i. king could not levy taxes without consent of Parliament a.ii. ii. no imprisonment of persons without charge and trial by jury a.iii. iii. no quartering of troops in private homes a.iv. iv. no martial law in peacetime b. b. Why is Parliament flexing its muscle? b.i. i. Resentful of Stuart attempts to impose absolutism b.ii. ii. Economic changes affect MPs
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b.ii.1. 1. Agricultural Revolution (ch. 19) enriches the gentry, commercial classes b.ii.2. 2. House of Commons becomes better educated b.ii.3. 3. Unlike in France, the upper classes paid
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Absolutism in England - Absolutism in England? I. I. James...

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