BIO121ch13

BIO121ch13 - BIO121 I. Chapter 13 A. Gene expression A.1....

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BIO121 I. Chapter 13 A. Gene expression A.1. DNA to Protein A.1.a) Information encoded in DNA codes sequences of amino acids in proteins A.1.b) 2 Step Process: (A.1.b.1) Transcription; Synthesizes messenger RNA (mRNA) (A.1.b.1.a) Complementary to template DNA strand (A.1.b.1.b) Specifies amino acid sequences of poly peptide chains (A.1.b.2) Translation synthesizes polypeptide chain (A.1.b.2.a) Specified by mRNA (A.1.b.2.b) Also requires tRNA (transfer RNA) and ribosomes (A.1.b.2.c) Codon is a sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotide bases. Specifies one amino acid or a start or stop signal. A.2. RNA A.2.a) RNA Nucleotides: (A.2.a.1) Ribose (sugar) (A.2.a.2) Bases (uracil, adenine, guanine, or cytosine) (A.2.a.3) 3 Phosphates A.2.b) RNA subunits A.3. Genetic Code A.3.a) mRNA codons specify a sequence of amino acids A.3.b) 64 codons (A.3.b.1) 61 code for amino acids (A.3.b.2) 3 codons are stop signals A.3.c) It’s redundant; some amino acids have more than one codon.
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BIO121ch13 - BIO121 I. Chapter 13 A. Gene expression A.1....

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