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10 - Visual Imagery - What is imagery what is it for The...

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1 1 2 What is imagery, & what is it for? The study of imagery in psychology Imagery and perception The imagery debate Physiological evidence Spatial representations 3 • What is it? • What is it for? 4 Carson City Nevada or San Diego, California? 5 • Mental imagery: experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of a sensory input. • Visual imagery: seeing in the absence of a visual stimulus (US map example). • Applies to other senses too. 6 Wundt: imagery is one of 3 basic elements of consciousness (along with sensations and feelings) Follows Aristotle’s idea that thought is impossible without imagery Galton: people who have difficulty creating images think just fine…
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2 7 • Behaviorists were not too keen on studying mental imagery – it is not directly observable. • Allan Paivio (1963) – found that concrete nouns are easier to remember than abstract nouns. • Last 30 years has seen a great deal of research on imagery 8 Roger Shepard 9 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 3.0 seconds 4.5 seconds A B C TIME 10 Picture-plan rotation Depth rotation 11 • Response time is proportional to angle of rotation • Consistent with mental rotation of analog image. 12 • Do they share the same mechanisms? • Linear relationship in mental rotation suggests that imagery is based on spatial representations. • Further support: – S. Kosslyn – image scanning
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3 13 • Stephen Kosslyn: – Visual imagery is spatial in nature – It should therefore take longer to find things within imagery that are further apart. 14 15 Imagine the picture Focus on the front Is there a flag? Is there a outboard motor? Empirical finding: People respond faster to the flag question than to the motor question because the motor is further away from the front. 16 Starting point Beach Grassy Marsh Bay Hut 1 Hut 2 Tree & Pond Peninsula 17 • Now imagine walking to the tuft of grass at a constant speed. • Now imagine starting from the starting point again and moving to the beach at the same speed.
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