08 - Everyday memory

08 - Everyday memory - 1 Everyday Memory Everyday Memory...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Everyday Memory Everyday Memory & Memory Errors & Memory Errors 1 Overview: Memory as a Overview: Memory as a Creative Process Creative Process Autobiographical memories Flashbulb memories 2 Flashbulb memories Constructive Memory Inferred memories False memories Remembering Personal Remembering Personal Experriences Experriences Autobiographical memory : Episodic memory for dated events in our lives. Example: Your arrival at USC 3 Example: Your arrival at USC How are these events remembered? Conway (1996): 3 layers of knowledge Nested Layers of Nested Layers of Autobiographical Knowledge Autobiographical Knowledge Conway (1986): 4 Life Span Memory Life Span Memory Some events (about your own life) are remembered better than others. Examples: milestones transition periods 5 Examples: milestones, transition periods Pillemer et al. (1996): College alumni display enhanced memory for beginning of freshman year and end of senior year. The Reminiscence Bump The Reminiscence Bump Rubin et al. (1998): Enhanced memory for (episodic and semantic) facts of adolescence & young adulthood. 6 2 The Reminiscence Bump The Reminiscence Bump - Explanations Explanations Life-narrative hypothesis: personal identity is determined in those years. Cognitive hypothesis: Encoding is better in periods of rapid change 7 Encoding is better in periods of rapid change, followed by relative stability. What can provide empirical evidence? Find people who experienced rapid changes at different life periods. Hypothesis: Reminiscence bump should shift The Reminiscence Bump The Reminiscence Bump The reminiscence bump for people who emigrated at age 34 to 35 is shifted toward older ages 8 toward older ages, compared to the bump for people who emigrated between the ages of 20 to 24 (Schrauf & Rubin, 1998). Implications Implications Cognitive hypothesis: Encoding is better in periods of rapid change, followed by relative stability. 9 Flashbulb Memories Flashbulb Memories What did you do on September 09 2001? What did you do on 10 What did you do on September 11 2001? What did you do on December 11 2001? Flashbulb Memories Flashbulb Memories Phenomenon: Shocking and emotionally charged events tend to be remembered very vividly (and more detailed than other events). 11 Question: Do these phenomena highlight a special memory mechanism? Can have adaptive value (one shot learning). Flashbulb Memories Flashbulb Memories Brown & Kulick (1977): Flashbulb Memories are created by a special now print mechanism. Conditions for invocation 12 Conditions for invocation: emotionally charged circumstances high consequentiality of events 3 Evidence Evidence for for a Special a Special Mechanism Mechanism Hamann et al. (1999): PET Emotionally charged images lead to higher amygdala activation and were more likely to be remembered.to be remembered....
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course PYSC 405 taught by Professor Ferreira during the Fall '11 term at South Carolina.

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08 - Everyday memory - 1 Everyday Memory Everyday Memory...

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