01%20-%20Introduction%20%28final%29

01%20-%20Introduction%20%28final%29 - Today's Agenda...

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Unformatted text preview: Today's Agenda Psychology 405 Cognition Course Requirements Course Introduction 1 2 Instructor Important Amit Almor psycholinguistics, language and memory Class discussion will not summarize the readings but will complement it. To be successful in this class you will T b f l i thi l ill need to keep up with the readings, attend class, and participate. Go over syllabus. 3 4 Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Lat. `cogitare': to turn over in the mind; to know; to think/reflect/reason; to learn; to be / f, /p . aware/conscious of, to intend/plan. The very first textbook (Neisser, 1967): "the term `cognition' refers to all the processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, f d d d l b d d recovered, and used." "... every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon." (Neisser, 1967, p. 4) 5 6 1 Cognition The collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and understanding, as well as the act of understanding using those processes. What is Mind? The mind Environment Everything we said Goal-directed Behaviors Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the mind and how it works. 7 8 Why study the mind? Can't we just consider the mind as a simple mapping f i from the h environment to actions? 9 10 11 Shepard 1990 12 2 13 14 So The study of cognition Is about the mental events and knowledge involved in: The mind does not represent a simple mapping from the environment to actions. We need to look at individual mental processes and understand how they work. We need to acknowledge internal organization and processes. 15 Perception: Seeing, recognizing, hearing... Attention: selective f Att ti l ti focusing, not noticing i t ti i most (and `irrelevant') aspects. Memory: recalling facts, experiences, plans... Language: understanding & speech production Reasoning & problem solving: logical thinking, judgment, decision making... 16 Assumptions of Cognitive Psychology Mental processes exist! Mental processes can be studied scientifically (b using speed or i tifi ll (by i d accuracy as Dependent variables). Human beings are active information processors. 17 Some history 18 3 Ancient Greece 1. Focus on the study of Perception, Memory and the Nature/Nurture Issue 2. Three Assumptions: a. Middle Ages Few Contributions to the study of Mind Barbarian invasions, F u a sm, decline of ar ar an n as ons, Feudalism, c n cities, Ascendance of church, ... World can be understood & predicted Human are part of the physical world Explanations of the world should rely on events in the world and not the supernatural or mystical. b. c. 19 20 Renaissance through the 19th Century Modern history of Cognitive Psychology Return of the assumptions of the Greeks that the world can be understood, predicted, and that this was worthwhile. Birth of Modern Science and Scientific Method Humans are part of the physical world. Explanations of the world should rely on events in the world and not the supernatural or mystical. The importance of observations 21 ~1860s: 9 9 ~1910--1955: ~1960s: ~1990s: 22 A modern version of Donders' (1868) RT Experiment Donder's (1868) logic Mental "chronomerty": contrast simple vs. ``choice'' RT t h i to infer a mental process. Figure 1.3 (p. 6) (a) the simple reaction-time task; (b) the reactionchoice reaction-time task. For the simple time reaction text, the reactionparticipant pushes the J key when the light goes on. For the choice reaction time test the participant pushes the J key if the left light goes on, and the K key if the right light goes on. The purpose of the Donders experiment was to determine the time it took to decide which key to press for the choice reaction time test. 23 24 4 The first Psychology labs Behaviorism 1879: Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany (William James started a Harvard lab in 1875, but used it only for demo purposes; Wundt started off Psychology as a scientific discipline: textbooks, symposia, journals, university department, etc.) etc. Analytic introspection by highly-trained observants as preferred method. A response to Wundt's introspection The scientific study of observable behavior only Since mental processes can't b seen, Si t l 't be they have no place in psychology Behaviorism is "antimentalistic" 25 26 Rise of Behaviorism Four Principles of Behaviorism 1. Psychologists should focus only on that which is available. 2. Psychologists should explain behavior, not thought or consciousness consciousness. 3. Theories should be as simple as possible. 4. The overarching goal of psychology is to break down behavior into irreducible constructs the building blocks of behavior. Watson's candidate was the conditioned reflex. (little Albert) `Psychology as the Behaviorist sees it is a purely objective science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. (...) What we need to do is start work upon psychology making behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack.' `Psychology must discard all references to consciousness" (Watson, 1913) Method: no introspection, measurement of observable behavior Topic: not consciousness, but objective behavior. 27 28 B.F. Skinner Decline of Behaviorism animal behavior "Keller & Breland (1961) published The Misbehavior of Organisms demonstrating the inadequacy of behaviorist explanations. Conrad Lorenz (1950's) demonstrates ethological principles that behaviors can't deal with. a. Fixed action patterns Complex behaviors with no practice or reward. => innate or inborn learning. b. Critical learning periods A window of opportunity during which a particular type of learning will be easy for the organism. If missed, however, the learning will be difficult or even impossible. Reinforcement learning Increase likelihood of behavior through the addition of positive reinforcer or removal of negative reinforcer. Can explain even complex behaviors (e.g. language) as a chain of reinforced stimulus-response conditionings. 29 30 5 Failures of Behaviorism to Account for Human Behavior Problem with complex human behaviors such as Language: Chomsky's Criticisms of Skinner's Verbal Behavior Skinner s which argued for language learning by imitation and reinforcement. The generative nature of language innate rule capacity. 31 Figure 1.6 (p. 11) Time line, showing events associated with the decline of behaviorism (above the line) and events that led to the development of the information processing approach to cognitive psychology (below the line). 32 The Computer Metaphor and Information Processing Importance of Metaphor in Psychological Theories Descartes Nervous System to Hydraulics 19th Century Brain to a Telephone Switch Board Hebb (1949) Neural function to solenoids and capacitors 1950 s 1950's Computer Metaphor for the Mind Mind. Recap Artificial Intelligence and computer usage of symbols applied to psychology models Computer use of representation of symbols and processes to manipulate them give insight into study of the mind History Early cognitive psychology introspection Behaviorism rigorous method but B h i i i th d b t implausible assumptions Cognitive / information processing approach. 33 34 6 ...
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