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2.21.12 - 9.13.11 Psychology 503 Some terms presynaptic...

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9.13.11 Psychology 503
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Some terms……. presynaptic ending   synapse or synaptic cleft   postsynaptic membrane   pre and postsynaptic receptors
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Synaptic Communication
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Ion Channels Ion channels are embedded in the cell’s  membrane.  Most abundant on dendrites  and the cell body. Ion channels allow ions (Na+, K+) to move in  and out of the cell … and it is this movement  that alters the  membrane potential .
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Ion channels allow ions to move in  and out of the cell  Resting Potential
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Receptors 2 types: 1. Ionotropic receptors - protein complex that  contains an ion channel “gated” by a receptor… 2. Metabotropic receptors 
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Second messenger The neurotransmitter causes the release of a  molecule inside the cell which can  1. activate an ion channel and cause it to open. 2. Produce a intracellular cascade of events that  communicates with the nucleus to make some  change in the cells responsiveness.
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Second messenger cascade
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Postsynaptic potentials Postsynaptic potentials can either be  excitatory (depolarization) or inhibitory  (hyperpolarization). EPSP: Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential IPSP: Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential The net effect of (spatial and temporal)  summation is reflected at the axon hillock  where action potentials are generated.
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What happens after an action  potential?
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Terminating synaptic action How to get rid of transmitter in the synapse? The neurotransmitter can be destroyed by an  enzyme in the cleft The neurotransmitter can be reabsorbed back  into the bouton by the mechanisms of  reuptake . Transporters:  EX. SSRI  (selective serotonergic  reuptake inhibitor)
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Autoreceptors
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Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh) Neural development Cognitive function Decision making Memory Two types of receptors for ACh Nicotinic Receptors (Ionotropic) Muscarinic Receptors (Metobatropic)
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