Rosewater - FOREWORD On any given afternoon, in school...

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Unformatted text preview: FOREWORD On any given afternoon, in school gymnasts, playing fields and naming tracks across the country, the sounds of balls being hit; by bats, rackets, feet, sticks and basket rims punctu- the noise from runners racing around 400wmeter tracks, high jumpers flopping onto pads, swimmers diving into pools, wrestlers slamming into mats, and more. These are the sounds of America’s youth involved in organized sports, and a vast body of research demonstrates tliiat it is not just athletic prowess that these youngsters are developing. T his report is the first. of a series of monographs designed to explore what. is known about the healthy development. we seek for children and you th, and how participation in sports- based youth development activities can contribute to reaching this goal, With increasing public pressure to concentrate on student achievement, we focus this first report on the educational benefits of youth participation in organized sports activities rl‘hese reports are designed to stimulate discussion and action to strengthen sports—based youth development: programs and ensure that children and youth who are currently underserved 7 especially lowmincome children, children of color, and girls A gain the benefits of participat ing in them, Through these monographs, Teamep for Youth synthesizes lessons from the literature and presents them to the field so that practitioners can use them to advance their work and improve outcomes for the young people they serve Future papers in this series will explore health outcomes and outcomes for girls, respectively, as they relate to at’tereschool Sports participation. We are deeply indebted to the people listed in the appendix of this document, who inspired our work and made it possible. Special thanks to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, for support: ing rlearnt—lip for Youth’s convening of an esteemed group of the leading researcl'iers in the fields of human development, psychology, sociology, education. and kinesiology. We are also grateful. to the William and Flora Hewlett Founda— tion for co—hosting the convening, for their generous support of Team—Up for Youth and for their national leadership in improving educational outcomes for disadvantaged young people, Tl'iéllilis are due also to the Koret Foundation for its support of ’l‘eamellp for Youth and commitment. to improving education for disadvantaged youth. We are also grateful to Larry Stupsld, who has consistently supported Team—Up for Youths work and who inspires us with his leadership in the field oi education reform. This report was written by Ann Rosewater, nationally recognized as a leader and expert on public policy affecting families, children and adolescent development. We are grateful that she has applied her skills, experience and wisdom to the TEAM-UP emerging field of sportsbased youth development. Ann’s work helps frame this field with insight, intellectual rigor and crcatlidti-t This monograph, and those that will follow, could not. have happened without. the leadership of Teamwlip for Youths policy director, Susan Kleinn'ian Wallis. Susan‘s laser locus on improving educational, health and social outcomes for disadvantaged youth by providing practitioners with research, policy and advocacy tools to increase their iiripact is the pass sion driving this endeavor. We are deeply indebted to her for convening such an outstanding group of advisers and produc— ing what we know will be. a valuable and practical series Oi monographs. janet Carter Executive Director AUTHOR'S ACKNGWLEDGEMENl’S Many people contributed to the development of Learnt-rig to Play and Playing to Learn. 1 am especially appreciative of the leading academicians who have recognized the importance of learning environments in the non~school hours, and specifi— cally the opportunities provided for young people by sports and other orgai‘iized physical activity. l had the opportunity to interview many scholars who shared their knowledge and wisdom and directed. me to important published and unpub— lished studies and data. In addition, several of these scholars and other leaders from sportswbased youth development organizations and philanthropy ,ioined us for a richly textured in~person dialogue, further illuminating the opportunities and challenges suggested by the research. (See Appenle for complete list). Janet Carter’s leadersl'iip is taking 'l‘eani-Up for Youth and the field of sportsrbased youth development to new levels. Her support for building the intellectual framework to undergird this work has made her a true colleague. Lynne Lee’s deter— mination to make the report accessible to abroad public has consistently kept me on track. The platform for this inquiry was provided by JR. Atwood through his excellent literature review. Several people gave extra time to read and comment: on drafts of the report. Sylvia Yes, a trustee of Teamle for Youth, provided insightful comments on an early draft. Jenni— fer Fr’edriciis, Kathleen Miller and Maureen Weiss also offered extremely thoughtful suggestions and additional references, Lisa Lederer has, as always, done a masterful job of synthesiz- ing and highlighting the report’s message. 1 have been very fortunate to work with Susan Kleinman Wallis. She has been a wonderful partner in developing this report; and in providing ongoing support, attention to detail and thoughtful recom» mendations throughout its evolution. Of course, any errors or omissions are. mine alone. Ann Rosewater February 2009’ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Millions of children participate in. sports every day, every week, every year. Highwuuality organized sports are a gate way to academic: achievement, better grades, improved chances of attending college and success in the labor roar" het- ““ w and these benefits are especially important for low income youtl'i. rilhis report analyzes several distinct strands of research on the effects on youth of participation in. organized sports Over the years researchers have examined this core issue from any number of perspectives Their findings have varied, depending on the nature of their inquiries, whom they asked, and hovv they compiled their data. Sometimes researchers developed data that seemed to contradict previous research. But more often their data reinforced a straightforvvard conclusion: that higl'i—quaiity organized sports engage students, teach them important skills, dravv them into the task of learning, and connect them to fellow students and caring adults. An important result is a series of improved outcomes for students. This report examines data on “the impact of organized sports on the academic and intellectual achievement of students. The studies surveyed indicate that: 0 Children and youth who participate in organized sports are lu'gl'ier achievers in terms of grades and dropout rates, as well as related measures of academic achievement such as homework completion, educational aspirations and more. Q Physical activity, including participation in organized sports, produces intellectual and academic benefits that may have longwterm positive effects on life chances, 0 Participation in physical activity affects key brain fund tions critical to learning. 8 Both boys and girls reap the achievement benefits of participation in organized sports. 0 Participants in organized sports are more likely to attend college and to land hotter jobs with more responsi- bility and higher pay. Turning to the impact of participation in organized sports on students' values and motivations, the data demonstrate that: 0 Sports help children and youth feei better connected to school, attend school regularly, and connect with a more positive peer network. a» 0 Parents of those high school students who participate more in sports have higher expectations for their children. 0 Sports participation builds planning skills, and provides the experience of failing and trying again (persistence); these experiences provide a learning process that can translate to feelings of great Jr possibility for achievement in the school setting. Sports have an important effect on the development of children's peer networks. Research finds that: 0 High school youth participating in organized sports activities view sports as providing a place to meet other young people “who had at least one shared interest.” 0 High school girls find participation in sports to he a way to break gender stereotypes, enhancing their some. of possibility. 0 Sports participation contributes significantly to youth identity, especially in high school. The effects of participating in organized sports are as good or better for children from low-income families as for children from families with more income. The data show 1that: G For children Who are on the margin (eg. poor, learning disabled, obese, gay), sports participation can minimize feelings of difference and isolation and increase the likeli— hood of attending coilegc. 0 Participation in organized sports may provide an. opportunity for lovvrincome children that other youth take for granted, as a result, the effects on academics and grades are more pronounced for poor children. 6 Sports participation is correlated with improved grades or test scores among African Ai'iierican and Latino students. 0 African American and Latina female athletes reported better grades in high school and greater involvement with extracurricular activities than female non-athletes. Opportunities to participate in organized sports are not evenly distributed across the student population. The data show that: O Adolescents from more affluent families are more likely to participate in organized activities than adolescents from low-income families. 0 Research indicates that Asian Americans and Latinos less likely to participate in sports than other ethnic groups. 0 Disparities in participation are more pronounced in activities, such as sports and lessons, that require financial investment. 0 Opportunities dvnndie as students move from eiemen— tary to middle and high schools. 0 Boys have more opportunities to participate in orga— nized sports than girls, and girls’ opportunities to particr pate diminish more rapidly as they advance from en~ tary to high school. Too many young people lack sufficient opportunities to participate in high~quality organized sports. The data show that: 0 According to one study, about 7'5 percent of children. from White middle—class backgrounds participated in orga nized sports activities, while only 40 percent to 60 percei'it of low—incorrie children of color did. so. 0 Urban girls, especialiy giris of coior, often face higher barriers to participation, ii‘icluding outside jobs, culturai factors, and weaker parental support for sports involve-ai'nent. 0 Latino children report having fewer opportunities for safe outdoor play, and are less pi'iyslcaliy active than white children. Based on these findings, the report offers a series of recommendations for policy, practice and research to ensure that organized sports programs fulfill their promise and enable participants to reach their educational goals. These recommendations include: 0 Connect sportsu‘oased youth development programs more deliberateiy to schoois and learning, by requiring sch ooi. attendance and/or performance {while offering supiiiorts to heip meet those requirements), creating ways for coaches to serve as school liaisons, and more. 0 Ensure that coaches are well trained in child and adolescent development and other key cl'iaracteristics of effective iiirograi'ns; program ieaders must provide support for coaches’ engagement with participating youth. 0 Organize sports activities in ways that encourage and support parental ii’ivolvement. TEAM-UP ' " as“: ' 0 Promote youth involvement in program design. 0 Taite steps to reduce risky behaviors by offering drug and aicohol education. G lmprove access to and sustained participation in highrquaiity progran'is by increasing the “lumber of such programs, and by placing programs Where children and parents can easily reach them; address financial barriers to programs provided in the non—school hours, 8 Learn more about the mechanisms and processes that enable positive educational outcomes 9 Further investigate the factors affecting young people‘s participation .in organized sports; and continue to unravel the research challenges of selilselection and causation This report strengthens the conclusion that organized sports can help students succeed in schooi and in life. it also goes further, docu- menting the specific mechanisms for that engagement, highiighting barriers to expanding children’s opportunities to participate, and laying out a fuller range of benefits to be gained from participating. :vmi i ‘ i__ i l. i i INTRODUCTION Millions of children participate in sports every day, every week, every year. Sports make up the largest category of aftenschool activities available for children and youth. What happens in the context of sports activities matters e» it may affect how and what children learn, how they interact With others (both adults and peers) and who those others are, and their capacity to regulate their emotional and physical development over time. .c ~.~ milieu». With such enormous potential residing in youth sports, it is critical to learn from the current knowledge base and con— tinue to build it to help ensure that young people reap all the benefits possible from their participation. In this report we focus on the relationship between. sportsabased youth development programs and particiiiiants’ success in school, particularly for children and adolescents living in lowe income communities and communities of color. in doing so, we apply insights and lessons from the youth develop- ment field.1 rl‘his analysis of the research is designed to foster a public conversation about the availability, role and benefits of s'port.s~based youth. development that will affect policy and practice and stimulate future research. To promote this discussion, the report presents findings about the educational benelits of participation in organized sports activities, examines factors contributing to these heneiits, and considers What is known about who partici— pates and about the factors contributing to their participa tion. These findings reflect an extensive review of research literature across multiple disciplines, interviews With numerous experts in child and adolescent development and its relationship to sports and out~oilschool—time activities, and a forum of experts, practitioners and philanthropists working to identify applications emerging from the findings?’3 In linking organized sports to educational benefits, the literature employs a number of concepts: physical activity, Which may or say not occur in a struct ired and superm vised setting; physical fitness, Which generally refers to an individual’s performance on tests of aerobic capacity, en— durance, strength or flexibility; and organized sports, which are adultmsupervised sports activities generally taking place during cutuof-sclriool time. For example, there is increasing evidence that time spent in physical activity during school hours does not negatively affect. academic achievement and may have positive effects {Chomitz et at, 2009). The distinctions among these concepts not always carefully drawn. Furthermore, some studies consider both school-hased activiu ties and conununi yebased programs, While some of the research focuses on. participation daring outwofvschool time and some co isiders participation during the school day. The prepon- derance of evidence on which these findings d ‘avv coir es from studies of children’s participation in after—school activities, includii g organized sports. ,r We attempt to bring together these research findings to understand both their general directior and how they vary according to the age, gender, race and 'ncome of their subjects. Some of the findings also may he inconsistent or contradictory, as the research draws or different method oiogies, different samples of children and communities and a range of activity or program experiences, in addition, the experts may differ in their theories of What generates the effects they have uncovered. On the whole, the participation of children and youth in organized, supervised sports activity outside the regular school day has beneficial effects on their grades, high. school completion, college attendance and success in the labor market. Other areas that relate to or grow out of academic performance 7 school attendance, homework completion and aspirations for postsecondary education, for example w also are affected positively by students involvement in sports. Yet the factors that contribute to these positive educational outcomes are not fully under— stood. Some of the factors indicated in the literature are: 0 Getting involved in sports at younger ages improves the chances that children will continue to participate in organized sports activities. 0 The more persistent the participation over time and the more engaged in an activity youth become, the more robust the impact on academic measures. 0 Connecting to ongoing and structured sports activities helps shape a young person’s sense of identity and defines the other young people with Whom he or she spends time. 0 Connection to a peer group improves a child‘s sense of belonging, building SEif‘COl‘r‘flinlCE and reducing the feel— ing of marginality that is a characteristic of many children with learning, social, emotional, pi'iysica]. or economic chalw lenges. 0 Sports activities that take place at or near school may also increase i'ai'niliarity and comfort. with school. tire of the persistently confounding questions within and across various research studies has whether so he of the positive outcomes of participating in organized sports aciivities result from seiilselecio or whether the factors noted above are themselves sufficiently strong con- tri )utors to overcome selectior has. As Children get older, and competition stiffens, the Sports op;i.ons for youth. decline and youth are also more selec» tive about what they do with ti ei ' time. Other factors that are explored later in this document also contribute to who participates and whether 'hey continue to part'cim pate regularly and over time. heirei‘theless, Fredricks and others who have sought to centre for selfeselection have continued to find positive effec s, even though they may not be as robust:q The educational benefits arising from participation in supervised and structured sports activities indicate the importance of ensuring that all children, especially those for whom participation has been limited, have these op portunities. Furthermore, the opportunities in which all children participate should build in the kinds of experi- ences and practices that researchers have found n‘rake a difference to their learning and success. While millions of America’s children participate regularly in sports, there are many who do not, especially among lowrincome children, children of color and girls, The gap between those who participate in l'iigh—quality programs and those who do not has yet to be estimated. This report is organized into three major sections: Findings, implications and Recommendations. l Perkins, and Le Menestrel, S. (Eds). Sports—based youth development. New Girections for Youth Development, 11.5.(Fall2007l. 2A€wood, LR, (2008), Sportsebased youth deveioprnenr: A i’evrevv of research on dis academic achievement and psychosocial development of school—aged children who participate in physical education and sports programs, Prepared for Teavap For YOLKl‘r. 3' All interviews cited in this document were conducted by Ann Rosewater, July— September 2008. See Appendix for a list or' lritei‘vrewees and participants in the iorum held at rhe Hewlett Foundation on November 1:0, 2008 "‘ Jennifer Fredricks, Associate Proiessor oi Human Deveioprnenr at Connecricut Coilege, generousiy contributed the ioilovving comment about the chalienglng research questions surrounding selleseiection: "Until recently, the research in this area has tended to use cross-sectional and correlationai desrgns With limited adjustment lor seli—selec‘clon into actrvriles. As a result, it has been diliicult to separate the effects oi organized eCthlty involvement from preexisting differences between participants and nonpartlcipants. For example, adolescents who choose to parllclpa‘re in extracurricular activities tend to be of higher socioeconomic sta— tus, are more likely IO be European American, have higher grades, and have less depressed parents, and have greater parental support than their peers (Bohnert, Martin, & (Barber, 2007; Brown. is Evans, 2002; Feldman $- lvlatjusko, 2005; Huebner & Mancini, 2003; McNeal, i998). ihese selection factors also predict positive aci- justmenr, leading some to argue that the benefits of Organized activity participae tlon have likely been overstated in much ol the prior literature (Fredricks a Eccles, 20065; l-lollanci & Andre, l98?; Larson, 2000). TEAM—UP "Stronger conclusrons abour~ the associations between organized ac: if participation and devel- opment can be drawn rrorn studies w‘ 'ch adjust for preexisting differences between partici his; and nonpartislpants and include measures 0. the depene dent variable on multiple occasions (Larson, 2000; Marsh & Kleltman, 2002) For example, Eccies and her colleagues used longitudinal data to explore the ei‘lects of participation ln organized activrlies in both a sampie ol working-class white youth and a sample oiAfncan American and European American youth is 9., Barber ei at, 2001; :Credncks & Eccles, 2006a; Eccles 84 Barber, 2999’) In general, they i'ound rhar airer adjusting for some selleselecteon factors measured prior to activity involvement, organized participation predicted academic adjustment, psychologi~ cal functioning, lower-risk behavior, and civic engagement in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Slrnilarfy, Marsh and his colleagues (Marsh, W92; Marsh 8: Kleliman, 2002) used longitudinal data irorn the High School and Beyond Study and National Educational Study to test the r .ation between high schooi extracurricuiar participation and a range of outcomes over time, alter controlling for background variables and paraliei outcomes v;—: ables measured two years earlier. Across those two data sets, they found that partlcrpation in extracurricular ecrlvnies was assocrated with a range. oi academic and psychological outcomes though tine ei‘leci sizes were small and under one percent.“ Physical activity, including participation in organized sports, produces intellectual and academic benefits; these benefits may have long-term positive effects on fife chances. 0 Participation in physical activity affects key brain functions critical to learning. lii For adults and children, exercise facilitates executive function (is, processes required to select, organize and properly initiate goal.~directed actions) (Tomporowsld, Davis, Miler, & Naglieri, 2008). Physica. activity has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behavior, and a positive relation- ship with intellectual performance (Trudeau 8: Shephard, 2-008). Phy‘sica activity activates specific hiochernicals and proteins (brain—derived neurotropic factor and 1031,) and loci in. the brain having to do with certain functions that sharpen ti inking and enhance memory, including focus, concentration. and impulsivity; these functions have an impact on achievement (Ratey, 2008]. 0 Children and youth who participate in orgaruzed sports report higher achievement in school. Structured activity participation, especially in sports, has a positive relationship with school grades, while unstructured activity is negatively related to school grades (Fredricks 8:. Eccles, 2006; Mcllale, Grouter, 82 Tucker, 2001, Mahoney, Lord, (Darryl, 2005; Mahoney & Stattin, 2000). lnterscholastic team sports produce stronger effects than intramural/indivi dual sports, arguably because inten scholastic sports are more selective, have i'nore formalized rules, require a greater commitment by students, and are more competitive than intramural sports (Broh, 2002). Participation in high school. sports has positive effects on many Grade l2 and postsecondary outcon‘ies (cg, school grades, coursework selection, homework, educational and occupational aspirations, sell'mesteern, university applica- tions, subsequent college enrollment and eventual educa tional attainment) (Marsh & Kleitinan, 2003; Pejgin, 1994; Broh, 2002). Sports participation is linked to improved grades in math and English and increased time spent on homework (Broh, 2002; Reisner, White, Russell, & Birmingl‘iarn, 2004). 0 Among boys, sports have been related to positive academic outcomes (Broh, 2002; Crosnoe, 2001), 0 Several researchers find that, among girls, sports participation. has been associated with higher grades and increased desire to attend college {Eccles 8: Barber, 1999; Peltz & Weiss, 1984; Melnick, Sabo, & Vaniossen, 1.902; Miller, Melnick, Barnes, Farrell, & Sabo, 2005; Perry—Burney é“: Takyi, 2002). 0 Other researchers suggest that sports participation is connected positively only to educational aspirations, including aspirations for college, not to achievement levels (Melnick, Vanfossen, 82 Sabo, 1988), 0 Participation in sports helps young people stay in school. ill Sports participation reduces the dropout rate for male and female students in grades eight through twelve (Yin and Moore, 2004). High school athletic participation significantly lowered the dropout rate for white females in suburban and rural schools and Latina. athletes in rural schools (Babe, Melnick & Vani‘ossen, 1989). it In a longitudinal look at a group of 600 boys and girls from childhood through age 2.4, participation in school extracurricular activities, including sports, was related to lower rates of dropping out of school and criminal arrest among children with many risk factors. This reduction ll t in poor outcomes resulted only when an indiwdual’s peers also participated in the extracurricular activity (Mahoney, 2000). Participation in organized sports was associated with reduced levels of dropping out as great or greater than in any other activity (Mahoney Cairi’is, l997). These effects were strongest for lowrii'icoine and atwrisk youth (Fredricks Sr Eccles, 2006a). 0 Youth who participate in organized sports are more likely to attend and complete college. Participation in high school sports has been linked to college enrollment, more months attending college and higher levels of post-secondary education, especially for students with initially low test scores and low educational aspirations (Marsh 8; Kleitman, 2002; Eccles, Barber, Stone, 83 Hunt, 2003; Fredricks & Eccles, 2000a; Crosnoe, Eccles interviews) . Boys’ participation in football or basketball is associated with. higher educational aspirations (Rees & Howell, 1.990). 0 Youth who participate in organized sports are more likely to land better jobs. t Sports participation is associated with feelings of “having a job with a future" and having more job autonomy. Of all types of extracurricular activities, only sports and academic club participation have been related to better occupational status (having a careervpathjob and job autonomy) at 25726 years of age (Eccles et al, 2003). Among men, having participated in high school athlet— ics generates higher productivity and is directly linked not only to more years of education but also to higher wages The National Longitudinal Study oi" Youth shows that men at an average oi" 32 who had participated. in high school athletics were paid 81% higher wages than those who had not participated. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 19’}? shows that men at an average age of Bi who had participated in high. school athletics were paid 12% higher wages than those who had not participated (Barron, ill/l, et al, 2000). 0 Persistent and engaged. participation in organized activities, including sports, improves academic benefits. A Yale study of Latino and African Ariierican children in schools tailing under the No Child Left Behind Act showed that children who participate in at least two to three hours a week of organized activities are most likely to show improvement on standardized achievement; tests (Mahoney, Lord, 8; Carryl, 200:5). “Engagement.” in the activity also makes a significant year) beyond Mitt-wanes (of as much as a third to half i duration. of participation, in the degree of improvement in achievemeru. levels (Mahoney interview). The intellectual and academic benefits resulting from participation in organised sports activities are associated with, and may be influ— enced by, values and motivational beliefs and the promotion of life skills. O Participating in sports may foster greater identification with and commitment to school. and school values, which may account for the achievement. effects (Marsh 82 Klein man, 2003). 8 Sports help children and youth feel more connected to school, attend school regularly, and connect with a more positive peer network (Eccles, Fredricks interviews). 0 High school students who are participating more in sports experience higher parental expectations (Marsh 8;. Kleitman, 2003). 0 Evaluation of a. structured spori'LsAbased youth develop— ment program with a child-development—based curriculum showed that all of the participating children transferred some of the. skills they learned in the sports context to other contexts, including school; e.g., setting goals to get better grades (Weiss, 2006), 0 Cl'uldren participating in the sports—based youth devel~ ' opment program perceived that their academic compe~ tence had improved each year (Weiss, 2006). 0 Sports activities that take place in proximity to school are more likely to employ school personnel, creating an opportunity for children to feel more comfortable at the school= develop relationships with teachers and, especially when they have not been. highly successful in academics, engage in something that they are good at (Epps, Larson, Siinpkins, Zarrett interviews). 0 Sports participation builds planning skills and provides the experience of failing and trying again (persistence); these experiences provide a learning process that can translate to feelings of greater possibility for achievement in the school setting (Granger, Larson, Simplcins, Zarrett interviews) , , Participation in sports affects the development of children‘s peer networks. 0 in a study in a Southwestern urban community, high school youth participating in organized sports activities viewed sports as providing a place to meet other young people “who had at least one shared interest”; high school girls also found participation in sports as a way to break gender stereotypes, enhancing their sense of possibility (Crosi'ioe interview), Q By contrast, others suggest that, in addition to positive developmei‘ital effects and creation of social capital, participation in structured sports activity has an effect of its own: “Having more academically oriei'ited peers does not explain away the significant effects of sports partici» pation on any of these educational outcome measures” (Bron, 2002). 0 Sports participation contributes significantly to youth identity, especially in high school. Sports participation helps create a social identity, a way that young people are perceived by their peers (Crosnoe, Eccles, Miller, Simpkins interviews), 0 Some researchers have found that “jock identity" is associated with better grades, expectations of going to college, and engaging in more parties and drinking (Eccles interview). Others have found negative correlations between “jock identity” and acl‘iieven'iei'it: female athletes reported higher grades than female nonrathletes, but female and Airican American adolescents who identified themselves “jocks” reported lower grades than those who did not. Jocks also reported significantly more miss conduct. (eg, shipping school, cutting classes, having someone from home called to the school ior disciplinary purposes, and being sent to the principals office) than nonrjocks (Miller et al, 2005). Abuse of alcohol by adolescents who participate in competitive sports is a social phenomenon. es that. is, a function of the peer group with which the students are associated. Some studies also show that teens participating in sports report lower use of alcohol than those who are not involved in sports activities (Eccles interview; Fredricks & Eccles, 2006a). ---- 0 Some studies of working and middle—class youth find that sports participatioi‘i is linked to higher alcohol use (Barber 8: Eccles, l999; Fr‘edriclrs dz Eccles, 2006). in contrast, another study, of a pre dominatelv African American sample, found that athletic participation was associated with lower drug and alcohol use for boys only {Fredricks Pa Eccles, 2006a]. 9 Sports participation socializes boys into traditional gender roles, while similar participation socializes girls into nontraditional gender roles (Miller, Barnes, Melnick, Sabo, 8; Farrell, 2002). 6 Peer connections have more intiuv ence on boys’ achievement than on that of girls, despite the conventional view that girls are affected more by personal relationships than boys {Crosnoe 2001). Effects are as good if not better for low- income children and those who are perceived as different in some way, especially at older ages; race appears to have much less effect on academic outcomes than income. 0 For children who are on the margin (cg. poor, learning disabled, obese, gay), sports participation can diminish feelings of difference and isolation and increase the 1ii<cli~ hood of attending college {Grosnoe interview). 6 Participation in organized sports may provide an opportunity for low-income children ti‘iat other youth take for granted; as a result, the effects on academics and grades are more pronounced for poor children (Crosnoe, 2082). 0 Research drawing on data. from the High School and Beyond survey indicates that sports participation is correlated with improved grades or test scores among African American and Latino students. One study found that while schoolhased activities were related to achieve merit for both African American and white youth, outmoiw school activities were not related to achievement. among African. Americans (Marsh. and Kleitman, 2002; Gerber, 1996). 0 African American and Latina female athletes reported better grades in. high school and greater involvement with extracurricular activities than female nonathletes, but these effects were more short~lived than for white girls, for whom high school sports participation was associated with higher rates of college attendance and completion {Saba lVleinick, & Vanfossen, 1989), .. Parents, teachers and coaches play a significant role in children and youth’s participation, engagement and outcomes. 0 Parents have more influence on younger children‘s participation; however, they can also have more negative effects on Whether or not children enjoy the activities and continue to participate in them by pushing too hard {Eccles interview). Young people who perceive hoth greater support and lower pressure from their parents tend to have higher attraction and commitment to sports (Weiss, 2008}. G Farriily members can positively support children’s motivation by serving as role models, holding high expecs tations and providing opportunities in the home (Fredrich interview) . is Parents promote children’s soc'ai development and social skills by enrolling them in programs; these skills can improve children’s relationships with their teachers and their attention in the classroom, thereby improving their school performance (Simpkins interview). Parental factors, including beliefs, time involvement and equipment purchases, are linked to greater motivation and sports participation in their children (Fredricks & Eccles, 20025), Parents do more to encourage and support: their male children to participate in sports, but when they do those things for their female children. there are similar positive effects (Simpkins interview). 0 Some immigrant families for whom sports and other orgai‘uzed afteiuschool activities were not part of the cultural experience often do not understand the value of their children participating in structured nonracademic activities (Simpkins interview). immigrant parents are more likely than nonirnmig‘rant parents to believe that boys are more interested in sports than girls are (Sabo Veliz, 2008). 0 Teachers of lovvvincome children can play an effective role in encouraging participation (Epps interview), 0 One of the strongest predictors of a child’s per‘ sistence in a program is the relationships between coaches and children ( Weiss in terview) . Experimental intervention studies 'of participation in Little League show that 'Wellwtrained coaches, not competition. or win—loss records, promote ijiersis~ tent participation (Smith, Smell, it: Curtis, 197.9). Research is also beginning to show the importance of positive staff interac- tion, supported by quality staff training, to children’s developnieirital outcomes in aftermschool programs (Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999), O A recent study testing the impact of trained coaches on young athletes motivations and attitudes showed that athletes who played for interventionmtrained coaches were more interested in improving their academic achievement than those who played for coaches who had not been trained in this cognitive-“behavioral intervention focused on mastery (Srnoll, Smith, a Cumming, in press). Researchers have identified predictors of both participation and persistence in organized sports, including demographic characteristics of children and youth, youth perceptions of the value of participation, and characteristics of programs that are more likely to engage youth over a longer period of time. 0 Children who participate in organized sports in elemenm tary school are more likely to participate in sports in high school. Being part of a team and having fun, as well as parents’ decisions, drive children’s participation at younger ages (Simpkins interview). Girls enter sports at a later age than boys, and this may contribute to a greater likelihood. that they will drop out of sports in middle school and high school (Salio Veliz, 2008). G Adolescents from more affluent families are more lilcely to participate in organized activities than adolescents from lowmincome families (eg, Fredricks 82. Eccles, 2806a; TEAM—UP Marsh (Sir. Kleitman, 2002; Simplons, Ripke, Huston, & Eccles, 2005; Theoizas 85 Bloch, 2006). Q Girls in suburban communities participate in sports at a similar rate to boys. l-lowever, urban and rural girls, lows income girls and girls from immigrant families all partici— pate in sports at significantly lower rates than their male counterparts [Salio &. Veliz, 2008), 0 Research. indicates that Asian Americans and Latinos are less likely to participate in sports than other ethnic groups (Darling, ('Ialdwell, 8; Smith, 2005; Shaun, 2001; Davalos, Chavez, & Guardiola, 1999), 0 Among older youth, participation in sports is more likely if they enjoy it, if they believe it will be good for their future, and if they see themselves as “athletes.” Partich pation also depends on the perceived costs (what youth might “losing” by choosing to participate in sports) (Fredricks interview). 0 Disparities in participation are more pronounced in. activities, such as sports and lessons, that require financial investment (Bouffard et al., 2006; Simpkins et al., 2005). 0 Predictors of engagement in an activity (not just par~ ticipation) include a warm, positive climate with consider» able peer-to—peer interaction; structured and organized programs that have clear plans for what children and youth will do (without being rigid or inflexible); and programs that have an orientation toward “mastery,” gearing assign— merits appropriately to children’s slcill levels (Mahoney interview) . The range of available sports opportunities changes as children get older; participation also falls off as children age, especially among girls. 0 Participation in cornnriunity—based programs is highest in elementary school; as children move from elementary to middle school, participation increases in schoolvbased programs and declines in community—based programs, As children progress to middle school and then to lu'gl'i school, sports opportunities become increasingly competitive (Sirnplcins interview). 0 A teneyear study tracking African American and white girls from age 9/l0 to l8/19 found a larger decline for African. American girls than for white girls in participation in pl'iysical activities, with both groups experiencing large declines. the age of 16 or 17 years, 56% of the African American girls and 31% of the white girls reported no l'ia‘oitual leisuretime physical activity (Kimrn et al., 2002). 0 High school boys receive 40% more chances to play varsity sports than girls (National Federation of State- High School Associations, 200:3) Boys experience a 19% decline in sports participation from middle school to high school, wl'iereas girls experience a decline in participation {ll Secretary oi‘ Health and ll irnan Services dz. US. Secretary of Education, 2000) 0 Girls in one state {Massachusetts} lag sigi'iii’icantly behind boys in participation in organized school» or community—hased sports tean'is; girls of color lag behind their white female peers in participation in organized sports teams {National Women’s Law Center & Harvarr University School of Public lil'ealtl'i, 2004). . Too many young people continue to lack sufficient opportunity to participate fully in and benefit from organized sports activities. 0 One study shows that. 50% of American children and youth do not participate in organized activities at least two days each week. Of a nationally representative saiii'ple of American kids who recorded their activities in time diaries, 50% participated in no organized activities on two random— ly selected days (Mahoney, Harris, & Eccles, 2006'). 0 Approximately 40% of 12—44 year olds regularly spend time taking care oi” them“ selves, with no adult present, during a typical weeli [Overt turf Johnson, 2005; Cain 8i Hotierth, £989; Casper 8; Smith, 2092); selfwcare is higher for children of working mothers (Brai‘idon, 1999; Rodman 8; Pratto, 1987). 0 Although the prevalence of selfscare is greater among white and more affluent; youth with college—educated parents, African American youth experience higher amounts of selfscare during a week (Casper & Smith, 2902'); a more recent analysis of low-income i044 year olds found that the poorer the children are, the higher the likelihood of sellicare {Levine Coley, Morris, & Hernandez, 2904). 0 in one recent study, three—quarters of children from white Huddle-class backgrounds participated. in organized sports activities, while only 40% to 60% of lowdncorne cl'iildren of color did so (Simpldns et al, 2005). 9 Urban girls, especially girls of color, often face unique barriers to participation. Many have jobs in order to supplement family incomes, while otl‘iers take care of siblings at home. rFliese as well as cultural factors may contribute, among some ethnic groups, to weaker parental support: for girls’ athletic participation (Place, 2004). O Latino children get less physical activity than white. children, explained in part because they report having fewer opportunities for safe, outdoor play (Morgan et al, 2008}. 0 Girls who live the lartl‘iest from school were found. to spend the least. time on physical activity (Cohen et al, 2004). Q The CDC Q99?) reported that overall physical activity is lower among residents of rural areas than in urban centers and ascribes part of the cause to rural An'iericans having fewer recreational opportunities and greater transportation problems. llVlPLlCATl-C‘NS lilounting evidence points to the educational benefits deriving from children’s and adolescents“ participation in organized and supervised sports. Our findings reinforce the importance of considering after—school activities, including organized sports, as opportunities for learning and developn‘ient, with as much potential for impact on various developmental outcomes as schools. What this approach implies is that the various elements considered in educational research should. be the i'oci of attention in policy, practice and research on stains—based youth development. These elements include: al'terrschool climate and environment, facilities and equipment, key personnel including program staff, coaches (paid or volunteer) and administrators, the quality of activity com- ponents, the roles and engagement oi parents and other family members, the needs of children and youth partici— pants of different: ages, genders, incomes and cultures, and the conditions of the neighborhoods from which children come and where programs are offered. if we consider these elements, it will increasingly be possible to help children and their families find the right match for their developmental ages, interests and needs. Young people of different and from different backgrounds and cultural experiences may connect: differently with various sports activities and programs structured in a variety of ways. Yet there remains no clear equation to describe the mechanisms contributing to achievement. While there is evidence, as identified earlier, of particular outcomes from . sports participation, and hunches about how they emerge, the exact processes, singly or in combination, and. what weight each of these may hold in influencing the outcomes remain essential elements of future inquiry. Some of the mechanisms that require critical attention involve young people’s own psychological processes, including learning to regulate emotions, persevere in the face of failure, set goals and plan to meet them, manage time, take ii'iitiative and worl: in a team. Sports participa tion may also enhance children‘s feelings of connection to their schools, and their knowledge of their teachers and other school personnel, boosting both their attendance and comfort levels in a focused learning environment. The health improvements and diversion from risky behaviors that emerge from physical activity and participation in organized sports 7 lower rates of depression and, in most instances, reduced use of alcohol, for example — may remove impediments to learning}l TEAMwUP ‘ ,- WT" wsiaww Other mechanisms may be connected to the peer group er gaging in the sports activity: their motivations, experiences and orientation toward success may influence With a child or teen takes from his or her participation and how it gets translated to an academic setting, The peers w'th whom chiidren interact on the piaying field may he more focused on educational goals and career aspirations. Ozhcr processes may also be influential in enahiing chil— dren and youth to transfer to educational environments the social and emotional development they achieve ti rough playing organized and superviSed sports. These have more to do with how parents or other adult caregiv ers view the sports opportunities for their children, the ways in which they provide encouragement and support, and the extent of their own participation in the activities. Many outuot~school-time activities are organized and over- seen by community programs or schools. How these spone soi's facilitate and support the activities also contributes to the outcomes for participants At a minimum, the spon— sors affect the safety of the sports environment. They also affect the roles, preparation and sustainability of coaches and other adult participants who are critical to whether children participate regularly in, enjoy and. learn from the experiences. All of these mechanisms interact in a dynamic system, and consequently should he considered in relation to one anoth~ er. While there is much yet to learn about this system and how to make sports~based youth development most ei'i‘ecv tive for its participants, enough is known for us to identify a series of steps that can be taken to make these activities as effective as possible in fostering academic success. 5 ln general, this report does not address the many positive health consequences of participation in physical activity and sports-based youth development The: :5 rho subgeci oithe next Team-lip for Youth report in this series. DMMENDATlO’N FOR AND RE "E" RC-H PRACTICE POLI, Our recommendations cross three major categories that are critical. to moving the sports~based youth development iieid toward." a goal oi improving educational outcomes for children and youth. The first two, program duality and equitable access to highwquality programs, are top prior} ties. Carefui evaluation of intentional improvements made in the quality and. access armies, and application of the findings of these assessments, vidll continue to advance these programs’ quality and stability and the likelihood that more children wiil participate and reap the benefits. i. Strengthen the quality of programs to foster the attributes that lead to positive educational outcomes. Connect sports~basecl youth development pro— grams more deliberately to schools and learning. 0 Require school attei'idance and/or performance and offer supports to help students meet these requirements. 9 Explore collaborations With other programs or the inclusion of other components such as tutoring, creative writing or other academically oriented activities. 6 Employ teachers and other school staff in sports programs and hold these programs at or near school sites. 0 Create ways for coaches to serve as liaisons to the schools, either by having school staff work in the program or by establishing expected and regular interactions between coaching staff/volunteers and schools. Create a conduit for trained, enthusiastic volunteer coaches and mentors to serve in low-income communities where they are needed most. 0 increase the number of volunteers in organized after school sports programs through AmeriCorps, VlS'l‘A and other volunteer initiatives. Ensure that coaches are well prepared and sup- ported to work with the youth in their programs. 0 Be clear about coaches’ multiple roles, including as supe porters of the school system’s academic goals, as mentors for participating youth: and as advisors for parents. 0 Train coaches in the principles of child and adolescent; development, emotion regulation and theories of learning.“ 0 Conununicate directly with schools about students’ academic status and help students get academic help when needed. 0 invest in regular supervisory support for coaches to promote stability and continuity. Organize sports activities in a way that encourages and supports sustained parent participation. 0 Set games at times that parents are more likely to be available, such as on weekends. O Regularly provide information to parents about avail— able higi'i—quality organized sports opportunities; ensure that. information is responsive to parents’ cultural and linguistic needs. 6 Use technology to communicate regularly with parents. Q Encourage parents including mothers, to become coaches. 0 Hoid year—end events for parents and their children to celebrate successes together; ensure that every young person is recognized for her or his participation. Promote youth involvement in program design. 0 Provide opportunities for children and youth to have a voice in determining the activities of interest to tliiern. 6 Support teens‘ capacity for independent decision- .rnaking while providing adult guidance. \Jwvi-v- sports activities, including coaching younger children 6 Promote peer relationships and peer learning through group or team activities, including team decision—malcing. Take steps to avoid risky behaviors. 0 Directly address the increased risk of alcohol abuse among athletes by offering alcohol. and drug education, creating an. alcohoi~iree pledge or policy or other strategies, ‘ a; Improve access to and sustained participation in highnquality programs particuiarly for under- servecl children and youth: girls, low-income children and youth of color. Ensure that federal programs that support after—school activities are adequately funded and incorporate high—quality organized sports opportunities. Such programs include: 0 218i, Century Community Learning Centers Program. ri‘his program supports the creation of community learning centers that provide academic enrichment opportunities during nonscliool hours for children, particuiarly students who attend high~poverty and lowwperforming schools. The program aliovvs schools and community—based organiza— tions to offer students a broad array of enrichment activi ties, which can include sports, 0 Carol M. White Physical Education Program (PEP), This program provides grants to local education agencies and community organizations for physical education; including after—school programs. increase the number of high-quality programs in low~income communities. 0 Broaden the view of education. to incorporate after“ school sports and other activities as an essential component. Frame afterrschool programs as “extended learning” with choices available, including high—quality organized sports. 0 in Calii'ornia maximize the use of After-School and Safety Program CASES) funding through school districts to provide srjiortswbased youth development programs in the context of after—school programs. ASES-iunded programs are required to offer opportunities for physi— cai activity such. as sports Provide technical assistance through. the California Department of Education to ASES TEAM-UP ai‘t-ernschool sites: to enable them to comply with physi— cal activity guidelines and incorporate sportsahased youth dove-zlopment into their programs Place programs in sites that children and parents can reach easily and safely. 0 Ensure that affordable, preferably free school or public transportation is available to sports programs in order to return children and youth home after the programs are completed 0 Expand and improve or create new sports environ ments that protect. children and youth from the risks of unsafe neigl‘daorhoodst Address financial barriers that preclude participation by low—income children. 8 Provide free participation or, ii' fees are required, make them minimal. 0 ll’ fees must be charged in order for programs to be sustainable, programs should offer and publicize scliolan ships, sliding scales, work opportunities and other strategies that make participation afierdabie for the children and teens of low—income families. Recognize and address parents’ unique needs and values. 0 Educate parents about the benefits of sports participa— tion, particularly for giris. Make the case that participation in organized and structured activities is beneficiai to chiid and adolescent deveiopment and that. participation is more about learning skills and connecting to academics than about competition 0 Strengthen teachers, staff’s and coaches‘ sensitivity to parents‘ cuiturai. experiences, values and belief systems as a to heip parents see the benefits of their children‘s participation in sports, 0 Educate parents about what makes a quality program. Strategies may include regularly providing information highlighting effective programs, offering a checklist for parents identify-ring the components of quality programs, or developing a communitywidc resource bank that enables parents to match their children‘s needs and interests with higl‘nquality programs. v. . . . m5 O Engage parents through informational meetings and other outreach methods encourage their attendance. Sessions that provide meals, child care and. programs that engage the Whole family in activities can provide useful ii'idocements for parents and other fainiiy members to participate, Highlighting stories oi: children who succeed ri‘iay provide useful images that help parents connect participation with. results. 0 identify enrollment policies tl'iat Will accommodate the mobility of low-income, minority and immigrant families. Develop specific strategies to promote persistent and engaged participation. 9 Design programs to promote continuity of participation over time. 0 Develop strategies to keep girls from dropping out of sports activities. Focus should be placed on. girls in n‘iiddle school, with special attention to giris of color, who have the highest attrition rates. increase investment in research and evaiua— tion as a means to improve program quality and opportunities for participation. 0 Create and highlight models of quality at program, school—district and city-ieveis and study and replicate them. Look at differences in populations in terms of What makes programs most. effective in improving educationai outcomes. 0 Design research to study what. coaches do to promote emotion regulation and academic success; follow the sense line of inquiry as research on how teachers promote a positive teaming climate. 0 Evaiuate programs With specific interventions designed to promote persistence and engagement in sportsm‘oased youth development programs, With special attention to middle school girls. 0 Continue to examine the issues surrounding seiection bias. 0 identify the characteristics of effective programs that enable them to attract and retain youth from groups with lower participation and higher attrition rates, such as girls, youth of color and youth in low-income communities. 5 The Universmy oi California at irvine has deveioped an Aiterschool Certiiicate program with a speCIai sports component. . ' ,. “ h a?“ as «raw e” v w «a 5- t 4 A “w W W 5’ “5mm, . - Iv w w %3; Q r. as, q; w. 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Sports: A report to tho prostdrge-htfrom the secretory ofhoohf'z and. l'exlrmom. sorrows and the secretory of ottuocttton. Weiss, MR (2008). “Field of Dreams”: Sport or; a. contextij youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise. and Sport, 79, 4.344439. Weiss, R, with Blialta, 3A., Price, M. Bolter, D., & Stuntz, C. ’. {2006. October). 2005 research. summary.- Loam?“ turbo-2.521 offiacts oftho First Too (if? skills education. programs on positron-2 youth dove.Jopmemt St. Augustine, FL: The. First Tee: oi' the World Golf Foundation Yin, Z. 83 Moore, J. B. (2004). fifomax‘o'mi'hthg tho role (gr-mm: scholastic: sport participatimt in education. Psychological Reports, 94 (3 pt 2}. 14474454. APPENDIX Megan Bartlett, Director of Programs, Americo SCORES? Susan BeEi, Vice President and Senior Fellowfor Energy and. Ciiinate, William and Flora Heiiiett Fonndationi‘ Robert Crosnoe, 1311.13,, Associate Professor Department ofSocioiogy and. Pinniiction Research, Center Unioersity of fiestas at .An.stin* Jacquelyime Ecolos, PhD, Professor; Psychology Department and School of Education,- Senior Research Scientist, FrastitntejbrResearch Women r9: Gender and Research. Ce-n-terfor Group Dynamics, University of'Mich.igan* Sylvie R. Epps, Phil, Senior Research Associate, Dec/ii sion [nfomnation Resources, Inc. ‘1‘ Jemiifer Fredricks, Phi). , Associate ProfeSsor of Human Deoeiopinent, Connecticia. College“? Robert C. Granger, Edi), President, Wittioni T Grant Fonndation‘ki Jacob Hamid, Program Officer Piiiianiliropy, William. and Flora. Hewtctt Fonndationi Adam Hii‘schfoider, Program Officer, .fsforet Fonndationi‘ Jeff Johnston, Lecturer; UC Irvine Department ofEdnco.tion* Reed Larson, PhD, Professor oj‘H'i/mion Deoetopinent and Family Studies, Unioersiiy of Illinoisi‘ Kristine Madsen, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor; Division of General Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco *i‘ Joseph Mahonoy, Ph.D.,Associate Professor; Department ofEdncation, University of Caiifin’nia at Iroine*i Kathioeii E. Miller, Phil, Research- ,S‘ci " "st, Research [risen/Lite 011-Add’ififit‘iOi’i-S, State University of New York at Baffaloi‘ Jennifer Rainy, Program Qfi‘icer; Philanai-mpg, iii/"Minion. and Flora Hewlett Foundation Sandra Simpix’ins, PhD, Assistant Prof" ssor; Sci-toot of'SociaZ and Family Dynamics, Arizona State Ui-iioer.sity*“i‘ Maureen R. Weiss, Phi), Professor and (Jo-Director Tack, f?” Centerfor Research on Girls (E: Women in Sport, School of‘Kinesiotogy, and, Adjunct Professor: Institute ofC'n-itol De ‘ ‘toprnent, University of Minnesota, Twin Ci , ,i . " Nicole Zamett, PhD, Assistant Professor ofPsyciioLogy, Unioersity of South Caroiina* Ann Rosewaier, MA, (report anther convening faciiitcttor and. interoieioerji' Team—Up for Youth staffand trust-€295.91? Steven R. Boil, Janet Carter, Victoria. Geviin, Waiter J. Haas, Lynne Lee, and Susan Kleiiiman Wallis Interviewed by Ann Roscioater 1* Attended convening November 10, 2008 at William and Ftora Hewlett Foundation ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ann Rosewater provides consultation services to foundar tions, universities, noisier—profit and governmental oigariizations in strategic planning and policy develop— ment. Rosewater held several senior positions at the US. Department. of Health and Human Services (HHS), including: regional director for the eight southeastern. states, counselor to Secretary Donna Shalala, deputy assisw tant secretary for children and families, and deputy assis— tant secretary for human services policy. She was a mem— ber of the Nationai Advisory Council on Vioienee Against Women and the National Advisory Committee on Services for Families with infants and rl‘oci<.liers, which designed the Early Head Start program. Among other activities she coordinated the Department‘s participation in the Federal Support to Communities initiative to maximize opportunities for children and youth in the non—sehooi hours. Prior to serving at HHS, Ms. Rosewater helped create and served as staff director of the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Fairiilies in the US, House of Repre— sentatives and as senior legisiative assistant to Congress— man George Miller, Ms. Rosewater has written extensively on child and famiiy poiicy, child. welfare, child and adoies I cent health and development, education, disability rights and longwterrn care, women’s issues and comprehensive strategies to reduce urban poverty. Her recent publications include: Pathways from Brain Research to Policy: Htghlightsfi‘om the National Smmm’t on, Children; Promoting Prevention, Targeting Teens: Art Eirteei"girtg Agenda. to Reduce Domestic: Violence; and Child Welfare Emmett: Looking to the Future m Art Examination of the State of Child Welfare and Recorrtmendottmts for Action, Rosewater is vieeuchair oi the board of the Juvenile Law Center. Board of Trustees . ‘ r 2 . . i "i . - ' -~ ' Joiwr“ P, Levir‘l fl . . ,; «. , u-vm? e {9 _ I m . 4Q '9 Susan Lowemft Jennifér Maxweli . - .1 Angela: Nomeifini I ' 4 W Greg Nit/2:200 Thomas Patterson Arnold Parking n__ Joafl Ryan : ".3%: $§§§3 Dave Stewart \ ‘ 4 SyMa Mevling Yee, PhD. Executive Director Janet Carter - . , - ~15€22¢~i533>ax§t wyf‘izgw‘; W Mica MM Hwy - NW“. a: teamup FUR YUUTH _ fx‘j§$$§%ggfi*-I'j _ _' . Wm Ag ,é ' \‘WM »- mam t. 9% u,- 4 VW‘QGEHA “anew ...
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Rosewater - FOREWORD On any given afternoon, in school...

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