Rivas, etal2009


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A Preliminary Analysis of Associations Among Ethnic–Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity Among Urban Sixth Graders Deborah Rivas-Drake Brown University Diane Hughes and Niobe Way New York University Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research in- vestigates how early adolescents received ethnic–racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this study were drawn from a multi- method study of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse early adolescents in three mid- to high-achieving schools in New York City. After accounting for the influences of race/ethnicity, social class, gender, immigrant status, and self-esteem, parental ethnic–racial socialization was associated with higher levels of ethnic centrality (i.e., the extent to which youth identify them- selves in terms of their group), more positive private regard (i.e., feelings about one’s own ethnic group), and public regard (i.e., perceptions of other people’s perceptions of their ethnic group). Ethnic discrimination from adults at school and from peers was associated with more negative perceptions of one’s ethnic group (i.e., public regard). In addition, the association of ethnic–racial parent socialization and ethnic identity beliefs was stronger for those who reported higher levels of adult discrimination. Results highlight key ways in which ethnic identity may be shaped by the social ecologies in which adolescents are embedded. Ethnic identity—its formation, content, and importance—is increasingly at the fore of scholarship regarding educational attainment, life experiences, and psychological health in the second decade of life (Ashmore, Deaux, & McLaughlin-Volpe, 2004; Downey, Eccles, & Chatman, 2005; Pahl & Way, 2006; Phinney, 1990; Quintana, 2007; Spencer & Markstrom-Adams, 1990). JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, 19(3), 558–584 r 2009, Copyright the Author(s) Journal Compilation r 2009, Society for Research on Adolescence Requests for reprints should be sent to Deborah Rivas-Drake, Education Department, Brown University, 21 Manning Walk, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: deborah_rivas_drake@brown.edu
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Conceptually, most ethnic identity frameworks agree that adolescents’ un- derstandings of where they ‘‘fit’’ into the racial/ethnic group and the social status of their ethnic group relative to others is likely shaped by the kinds of race- and ethnicity-related interactions and messages they both perceive and actually experience. Yet few researchers have empirically assessed how per- ceptions of race or ethnicity-related interactions in different contexts shape the development of ethnic identity, especially during the critical develop- mental period of early adolescence. For example, parents’ positive messages about one’s ethnic or racial group are commonly expressed through ethnic– racial socialization, whereby parents transmit different cultural components of groups identified by race or ethnicity (see Hughes et al., 2006). Such mes-
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course PYSC 521 taught by Professor Dr.zarrett during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina.

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