Week 3-Linguistic Variation and Language Change PPT2

Week 3-Linguistic Variation and Language Change PPT2 -...

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Linguistic Variation and Language Change LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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No two individuals use a language in exactly the same way. The vocabulary and phrases people use are linked to where they live, their age, education level, social status and their membership in a particular group or community. Linguistic Variation LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova The National Science Foundation, www.nsf.gov
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Linguistic Variation does not always lead to language change, e.g. h-dropping vs. no h-dropping in England However, language change is always the result of linguistic variation Linguistic Variation and Language Change LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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Linguistic Variation Language is highly variable Stocks and investments and stuff like that in math but no, they don‟t do nothen‟. Like, I don‟t do anything. We were talken‟ about school and I don‟t do anything that I‟ve learned from school. Notheen. ( Alberta English Corpus ; quoted in Van Herk 2010) Five words ending in „-ing‟ 2 [ ı ŋ], 2 [ ən], 1 [ın] LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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Linguistic Variation A study of /aw/ (e.g. in “crowd”) fronting indexes in Toronto and Vancouver shows younger speakers produce vowels that are more advanced (closer to the front) in the vocal tract than older speakers (Van Herk 2010) Age Toronto Index Vancouver Index 12 81 76 22 58 58 46+ 24 32 LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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Studies of speech communities in Newfoundland (Van Herk 2010) Variable Word Phonetic Realization /ej/ bay standard [ej] nonstandard [e:] /o/ boat standard [ow] nonstandard [o:] / Ɵ/ three standard [ Ɵ ] nonstandard [t] / ð/ this standard [ ð ] nonstandard [d] or flap Highest rate of nonstandard forms? Highest rate of standard? Linguistic Variation LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova older men women & higher class
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Language Change: Sound Change Indo-European Germanic LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova Voiced aspirates bh dh gh Voiced Plosives (unaspirated) b d g Voiceless plosives p t k Voiced Plosives (unaspirated) b d g Voiceless plosives p t k Voiceless aspirates f Ɵ x Grimm‟s law (Crystal 2010)
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Language Change: Sound Change Latin, Sanskrit, Greek Germanic languages LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova Voiceless plosives p Latin p ater p iscis t Latin t res Voiceless aspirates f English f ather f ish Ɵ English th ree
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Language Change: Sound Change Latin Italian LING100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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This note was uploaded on 02/18/2012 for the course LING 100 taught by Professor Burgess during the Spring '10 term at Simon Fraser.

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Week 3-Linguistic Variation and Language Change PPT2 -...

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