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Week 4- Languages and Dialects-Language Families-PPT

Week 4- Languages and Dialects-Language Families-PPT -...

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Languages & Dialects; Language Families; LING 100, Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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Indo-European languages Sanskrit Latin Greek other… O Sir William Jones 1700s noticed similarities, and O suggested a common source O 100 years later German linguist August Schleicher O suggested that languages can be arranged in evolutionary trees LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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http://www.nature.com The glosso- genetic tree of Indo- European language Schleicher‟s conceptual leap LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans? O The Kurgan Hypotesis (Marija Gimbutas,UCLA) O 6500 years ago, Nomadic warriors; steppes north of Black Sea; herded sheep and goats, tamed wild horses; buried dead in large earth mounds called “kurgans” O After 1000 y., 2 millennia migration : Eastern & Central Europe, Anatolia, much of Western Asia O Overrode existing Mother Goddess worshipping societies and imposed warrior religion and patriarchal culture O Their language? Proto-Indo-European (PIE) LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans? O Colin Renfrew 1973 (Archeology, Cambridge University): the driving force behind migration was slow adaptation of farming O Agriculture carried the language family and the seeds (wheat and barley) into new territories O Çatalhöyük, Anatolia, Modern Turkey O Excavations there in 1960s unearthed the largest early farming community ever discovered, wall paintings, architecture, pottery, figurines O Support from radiocarbon dating of archeological sites Agriculture O Near East 11,000 O Anatolia 10,000 O Greece 8,000 O Balkans & Central Europe 7,500 LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans? O Renfrew‟s analysis weakened the Kurgan Hypothesis O New techniques based on evolutionary biology suggest PEI appeared 8,000+ y. ago O However, many linguists disagree O Based on reconstructions of PIE vocabulary, they argue that the first Indo-Europeans could not have been the early farmers of Anatolia O The PIE society was familiar with wheeled vehicles & copper metallurgy (Lawrence Trask, Univ. of Sussex) O → The split of PIE no earlier than ~ 6,000 y. ago, after the Anatolian farmers had dispersed. LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans? O English brother O Sanskrit bhrater O Old Irish brathir O Latin frater O Greek phrater O Tocharian O Russian O PIE Notes: O * indicates reconstructed form O Tocharian: extinct IE language once spoken in Western China O wheel O cakras O kuklos O kukäl O koleso O *k w ek w los LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans? O Linguists : no evidence of wheels earlier than 3,500 B.C. = 5,500 y. ago (Bill Darden, Univ. of Chicago) O The IE languages, which share a common root for this word, could have diverged only after wheels were invented O Same arguments for words like yoke, horse, wool O e.g. the IE root for wool is *HwlHn- O Farmers who moved from Anatolia to Greece 9,000 y. ago didn‟t know about wool, wheel, yokes, or horses LING 100/Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova
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The Indo-Europeans?
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  • Spring '12
  • sf
  • Language family, Indo-European languages, Proto-Indo-European language, Ivelina Tchizmarova, Dr. Ivelina Tchizmarova

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