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Unformatted text preview: E LECTRIC F IELD A LI A LZAHRANI Electric field is the space around the electric charge. Electric field is represented by lines extending away from positive charge and towards negative charge. These lines are also called the lines of force. A positive test charge is conventionally used to identify the properties of an electric field. The vector arrow points in the direction of the force that the test charge would experience. E LECTRIC F IELD E LECTRIC F IELD A B E LECTRIC F IELD L INES OF P OINT C HARGES E LECTRIC F IELD L INES OF C ONTINUOUS D ISTRIBUTION OF C HARGES The magnitude of the electric field due to any point charge ? at any distance ? is given by ? = 𝑘 ? ? 2 The electric force, therefore, on another point charge ? due to this electric field is ¡ ¢ = ?? The SI unit of the electric field is N/C. NOTE: The above equation suggests that the electric force has the same direction of the electric field unless the charge ? is negative. For any two equal and oppositesigned charges ? and −? separated by a distance ? , the magnitude of their electric dipole is ? = ? ? The unit of the electric dipole is C.m and its direction is from negative to positive charge. The magnitude of the electric field at a distance 𝑧 from the midpoint of an electric dipole ? is given by ? = 1 2𝜋𝜀 ∙ ? 𝑧 3 −? ? 𝑧 ? ? The linear charge density λ is defined as λ=q/L where L is the length of the line (or circumference of the circle). For a ring having a total charge ? and radius ? , the electric field at a distance 𝑧 from the center is ? = ? 𝑧 4𝜋𝜀 𝑧 2 + ? 2 3 2 The electric field at large distance from the center 𝑧 ≫ ? is ? = ? 4𝜋𝜀 𝑧 2 From this we note that the ring appears like a point charge at large distance from its center. The electric field at the center of the ring 𝑧 = ¡ is E=0, because the electric force on a test charge located at the center due to any point on the ring will be cancelled by the oppositesided point. The surface charge density σ is defined as σ =q/A where A is the area of the surface....
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 Spring '12
 1
 Physics, Charge, Force, Electric charge, Fundamental physics concepts

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