(2007) Important Concepts And Terms

(2007) Important Concepts And Terms - Week 1 State a set of...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Week 1 State: a set of permanent administrative, legal, bureaucratic, and coercive systems with a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. American state consists of such institutions as the IRS, Post Office, army, etc. State is pretty much a permanent institution, except in the case of a Revolution. The Russian Revolution, for instance, was a state change – entire Tsarist infrastructure collapsed. Regime: Rules by which political power is allocated. Regimes change more often than a state, though less often than government. For instance: Mexico switches to democracy, or Pakistan has a military coup. Government: The group of people who occupy the top positions of a state at a given time – the people in power. Governments change all the time: Clinton to Bush in 2000 is the most recent American example. Independent Variable: An event, person, or thing that can be used to explain another event or occurrence. Dependent Variable: An event or occurrence which may be explainable by one or more independent variables. Mill’s Method of Difference: Look at two similar cases where the outcome is different; to identify the independent (explanatory) variable, you focus on what’s different between the two cases. Example: Honduras and Nicaragua are very similar countries in many respects – yet Nicaragua had a revolution, while Honduras did not. One difference is that Nicaragua had a Sultanistic regime – could this be why? Mill’s Method of Agreement: Looks at two different cases, with a similar outcome. To identify the explanatory variable, you focus on the few things they have in common. Institutionalist Approaches: Approaches which emphasize the rules, procedures, and organizations that structure political life – for instance, Congress, Presidency, Electoral College, etc. These institutions shape how the game is played, who wins and who loses. Institutional approaches explain different outcomes based on differing institutions. For instance: parliamentary systems are more conducive to stable democracy. Structuralist Approaches : Cultural and Institutionalist approaches tend to be structuralist. They tend to disregard the role of political leaders – that is, a certain outcome would have happened no matter who is in charge. Revolutionary leaders are still necessary, but they are a dime a dozen. Voluntarism : Political leadership by individuals best explains political outcomes. They might argue that even poor Islamist countries can become liberal democracies with proper leadership. Week 2 Relative backwardness : This was a phrase coined by Gerschenkron in his theory that late industrial development differed from early industrial development. According to Gerschenkron, each country’s industrial development was strongly influenced by the development of its neighboring countries. If a country’s neighbors were modernizing and industrializing, this country suffered from “relative backwardness”, or being less modern/industrial in relation to the other nations around it. Being “relatively backward” could inspire a country to
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
industrialize more quickly in order to compete with its neighbors.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern