1. AMERICAN HISTORY PACKET (Part I)[1]

1. AMERICAN HISTORY PACKET (Part I)[1] - WORLDS COLLIDE:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: WORLDS COLLIDE: EUROPE, AFRICA AND AMERICA (1450-1620) NATIVE AMERICAN WORLDS THE FIRST AMERICANS- First people living in western Hemisphere believed to have come from Asia- First Americans lived as hunter-gatherers 3000 B.C., began horticulture (planting) THE MAYAS AND THE AZTECS- Mayas built large religious centers, communities with elaborate system of irrigation + water storage- Mayans declined around 800 A.D. (theory: 200 year dry period caused economic crisis)- Aztecs mastered irrigation system and establish hierarchical social order priests and warrior nobles ruled over commoners, slaves and serfs; Artisans worked in stone, pottery, cloth, leather- Aztecs were aggressive tribe and demanded economic and human tribute from scores of subject tribes- Believed in human sacrifice and Aztec merchants developed long trading routes (fur, gold, obsidian) THE INDIANS OF THE NORTH- Indians who resided north of Rio Grande were organized in self-governing clans led by local chiefs- Individual ownership of land virtually unknown clan leader resolved nearly every problem- Over centuries, tribes exerted influence over neighbors through trade/conquest- Hopewell tribe: large burial bounds surrounded with earthworks and ornaments- Pueblo tribe: lived in elaborate stone structures, grew crops via irrigation- Mississippian tribe: agricultural surplus, small cities, advanced farming techniques by 1350 A.D., in rapid decline, undermined by warfare over fertile grounds and affected by disease- Civilized tribes: Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Seminoles: agricultural, stable way of life- Woman were mainly horticulturists and mothers religious ceremonies based on cycle of agriculture TRADITIONAL EUROPEAN SOCIETY IN 1450 THE PEASANTRY- Very few large cities before 1450 A.D. (Paris, London, Naples) most of population were peasants living in small, rural communities: families owned/leased smell dwelling in village center and had right to farm strips of land in surround fields: no fences cooperative farming- Most peasants wanted to be yeomen: no obligation to landlord and owned enough land to support family- Peasants followed seasonal pattern; survival required unremitting labor and margin of existence thin HIEARCHY AND AUTHORITY- Kings (owned land, conscripted men for military) Nobles (large estates and controlled hundreds of peasant families) Peasants (worked to support themselves and give tax to nobles/king)- Nobles had power to challenge king: had legislative institutions (ex. French Parliament, English House of Lords)- Men in peasant families ruled over women and children women subordinate to husband- Fathers chose marriage partners for children and gave most land to oldest son primogeniture THE POWER OF RELIGION- Roman Catholic Church great unifier in Western European society Pope directed vast hierarchy- Church provided bulwark of authority and discipline in society: every village had church- Christian doctrine deeply affected lives of peasants: followed Catholic calendar...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course HIST 1320 taught by Professor Murphy during the Spring '08 term at Texas State.

Page1 / 11

1. AMERICAN HISTORY PACKET (Part I)[1] - WORLDS COLLIDE:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online