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Unformatted text preview: THE COMING OF INDUSTRY – THE ECONOMIC REVOLUTION I. Division of Labor and the Factory- Each worker did a specific role in the manufacturing of an item made manufacturing much more efficient- Use of steam engines in factory to increase production (Ex. Automated flourmill made by Oliver Evans) II. Textile Industry and British Competition- To protect its industrial leadership, Britain banned the export of textile machines and the emigration of mechanics who knew how to build it such demand for mechanics that some disguised their identity and sailed to the US- Although US was abundant in raw materials, Britain had much larger working population they could afford to undersell the US- 1816 = Congress passed tariff that gave manufacturers protection from low-cost imports of cotton cloth from Britain taxes reduced after complaints from southern planters and western farmers who wanted to buy the goods- To make up for small amount of working population in the US, women were hired in textile companies some felt restricted, others felt freedom and independence III. Wage Workers and the Labor Movement- As years passed, more people worked under an employer- Journeymen (carpenters, masons, cabinet makers...etc) concerned about the increasing length of workday held successful strike on second attempt in 1827- Artisans were being put out of business by industrialization- Men organized labor unions and called for revolution to destroy aristocracy- Machines began to replace manpower many people were dismissed EXPANSION OF MARKETS AND THE TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION I. Migration to the Southwest and the Midwest- Many people left for the west after the 1820’s some to acquire land for future generations, and others for hope in the fertile soil in creating wealth- Southern plantation owners moved more slaves into the Old Southwest in response to demand for raw cotton (First Stream)- Small farmers migrating into Northwest Territory, many of them fleeing from planter-dominated slave states (Second Stream)- Overcrowded farms from New England settlers poured into upstate New York and into Northwest (Third Stream) II. The Transportation Revolution forges Regional Ties- National Road and other interregional highways carried migrants to the East- Creation of the Erie Canal Dewitt Clinton his plans were criticized greatly but he managed to persuade bankers for bonds first project in American history to alter ecology and economy unheard of 364 miles long canal immediately brought New York as America’s greatest trade port- Erie canal allowed transportation to be much cheaper and faster- Creation of steamboat allowed huge cargo capacity- National system of transportation encouraged by Justice John Marshall struck down state controls over interstate commerce gave federal government authority over interstate commerce- Railroad greatly increased speed of transportation and was built mostly in the North one of the...
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- Spring '08