08_31 Readings-Landscapes of Ramayana

08_31 Readings-Landscapes of Ramayana - August 31:...

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August 31: Landscapes of Ramayana Chapter 3: Nature in Ramayana Ramayana – -Rama = principal protagonist; avatara (incarnation) of God who descended upon earth to restore righteousness and to punish evildoers - Ramayana = tragic tale of family intrigue, exile, and renunciation; exemplifies dharma (religiously ordained code of conduct) and karma (law of actions and their consequences upon lives of gods and humans) and bhakti (devotion) - Ramayana is divided into 7 books: 1) Rama’s birth to Darsharatha and Kaushalya, his childhood and adolescence, protection of safe Vishvamitri from rakshas while safe performs sacrifices, and his marriage to Sita, upon breaking of god Shiva’s bow 2) Ayodhyakanda : Rama’s exile; King D makes decision to appoint Rama as successor Queen Kaikeyi (stepmother) intervenes and reminds D of two boons he promised her when she saved his life on battlefront asks for Rama’s exile and for throne of Ayodhya to be given to her son (Bharata) in spite of D’s lamentations, Rama prepares to leave Sita (wife) and Lakshmana (half-brother) begs to be taken along 3 leave for forest and settle in Chitrakuta Bharata is called back when D dies of grief Bharata blames his mother (Kaikeyi) for turn of events and refuses coronation Bharata arrives at Chitrakuta and begs Rama to return Rama refuses, Bharata takes Rama’s sandals to Ayodhya (symbolically placing them on throne and ruling on Rama’s behalf from Nandigrama) 3) Aranyakanda : Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana’s sojourn in forest, visits to different ashrams, settlement in Panchvati Rama kills rakshasas (Khara, Dushana, Trishiras) when they attack their sister Shuprankha’s instigation cousin Ravana (demon-king of Lanka) hatches a plot with rakshasas Maricha to kidnap Sita Rama departs to hung Maricha in guise of golden deer with Lakshmana following suit, Sita is left alone Sita is kidnapped by Ravana and brought to Lanka Rama is grief-stricken and vows to find her Rama and Lakshmana are led to monkey-prince (Sugriva) who had be driven out of his kingdom Kishkindha by his brother (Valin) 4) Kishkindhakanda : Sugriva and Rama join forces Rama kills Valin (exchange for getting kingdom of Kishkindha) & Sugriva agrees to help them find Sita Sends out team of monkeys in all 4 directions 5) Sundarakanda : Hanuman (monkey; son of wind-god Varuna) manages to reach shore of Indian Ocean flies to island of Lanka and tracks Sita (who is held captive in a palace garden) 6) Yuddhakanda : Rama and Lakshmana’s attack of Lanka with Sugriva’s army of monkeys and bears after building causeway across ocean Ravana is killed, Sita is rescued and accepted by Rama Vibhishana (brother of Ravana; defected Rama’s camp) is coronated king of Lanka Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana return victorious to Ayodhya Rama crowned as king Rama-rajya = utopian state where morality, prosperity and good health prevail in the country
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course MSEC 7102 taught by Professor Myers during the Fall '09 term at Texas State.

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08_31 Readings-Landscapes of Ramayana - August 31:...

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