African Art Final Study Guide[1]

African Art Final Study Guide[1] - Sudanic Architecture ←...

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Unformatted text preview: Sudanic Architecture ← Rock paintings of chariots in the Sahara suggest Berbers were crossing the Sahara as early as 1000 BCE ← Sudan come from “bilad al sudan” (Arabic) • “the land of the blacks” • this is the designation Arabic travelers used for the Sahel ← Sudan = Sahel • Comes from “sahil” (Arabic) o Shore • Desert = a sea of sand • The Sahel, which is dry savanna, can be compared to the shore, and the major trading cities were like ports o Major trading cities: Timbuktu, Djenne/Jenne and Gao in Mali, Kano in Nigeria ← Materials for architecture = adobe/mud/earth • Terracotta = fired clay ← Trade began before contact with Islam but Islamic conquest led to increased trade because of: • Adoption of camel by traders • Culture of Islam and Arabs encouraged trade • Berbers encouraged to convert to Islam and participate in the trade • > increase in trade let to rise of several West African kingdoms ← Islam was important in the development of Sudanic empires • Islam cut across family and ethnic ties • Created a feeling of unity • Rulers went to Mecca, returning with blessings that increased their strength and status • Pilgrimage allowed rulers to establish contacts with other areas and increase trade • Increased literacy desired to read religious texts so people flocked to urban areas ← **Architectural monuments associated with these kingdoms are not palaces and tombs, but mosques ** ← Western Sudanic art • Emerging of elements of indigenous architecture combined with Islamic aesthetics • Art that adorns the body, emphasis on surface, intense patterns • Movement of artistic styles due to trade • Similarities between different ethnic groups o Waterworking – looks like Taureg • IMAGES: Dogon area of Mali, House – Togo, Dogon architecture Mali, House of Ginna lineage head Mali 20 th century, Binu shrine Dogon Mali 20 th century, Binu shrines Mali, Ancestral shrine Ghana ← Mosques change stylistically as one moves from north to south • Climate, building materials, techniques, construction skills, presence of urban center, how Islam is introduced, degree of acceptance of Islam ← 5 phases of Mosque types that correspond to how Islam entered into the area • Timbuktu o Djinguereber and Sankore Mosques, 1327, by Mansa Musa, Timbuktu, Mali Architect believed to be Abu Ishag Al-Saheli (Andaluisan poet) he brought when returned from pilgrimage Restored in 2000 Minaret of Kairouan o Sankore Mosque, 1300, Timbuktu, Mali Massive minaret, truncated pyramidal form, projecting timbers Mud masonry Massive scale...
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2012 for the course MSEC 7102 taught by Professor Myers during the Fall '09 term at Texas State.

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African Art Final Study Guide[1] - Sudanic Architecture ←...

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