Chapter 15 - Acid : a substance that produces H 3 O + when...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–17. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Acid : a substance that produces H 3 O + when dissolved in water. Base : a substance that produces OH- when dissolved in water Limited to water solutions Acid : proton donor Base : proton acceptor Bronsted-Lowry acid base reaction : proton transfer from acid to base Acid-Base Conjugate Pairs : two species that differ by a proton Acid : the species that contains the proton Conjugate Base : the species that lacks the proton HF + H 2 O F - + H 3 O + HF and F- make up a acid-base conjugate pair . F- is the conjugate base of HF. HF + H 2 O F - + H 3 O + HF is the acid, F- is its conjugate base (or F- is a base and HF is its conjugate acid) The reverse reaction is F - + H 3 O + HF + H 2 O H 3 O + is the acid, H 2 O is its conjugate base Acid Base HCl Cl - H 2 SO 4 HSO 4- HSO 4- SO 4 2- NH 4 + NH 3 H 3 O + H 2 O H 2 O OH- H 2 O is amphoteric- it acts as both an acid and a base An Arrhenius system acid + base water + a salt HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl is limited to reactions in water A Bronsted-Lowry system H A + B A- + B H + is more general - a proton is transferred from the acid ( H A) to the base (B). acid + base conj. base + conj. acid HF + NH 3 F- + NH 4 + HCl + H 2 O Cl- + H 3 O + H 2 O + NH 2- OH- + NH 3 HCN + H 2 O H 3 O + + CN- HCN is the acid, CN- is its conjugate base H 2 O is the base, H 3 O + is its conjugate acid CH 3 COO- + H 2 O CH 3 COOH + OH - H 2 O is the acid, OH - is its conjugate base CH 3 COO- is the base, CH 3 COOH is its conjugate acid Identify the acid-base conjugate pairs HNO 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 2- CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O CH 3 NH 3 + + OH- Identify the acid-base conjugate pairs HNO 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 2- HNO 2 is the acid, NO 2- is its conjugate base H 2 O is the base, H 3 O + is its conjugate acid CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O CH 3 NH 3 + + OH- Identify the acid-base conjugate pairs HNO 2 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 2- HNO 2 is the acid, NO 2- is its conjugate base H 2 O is the base, H 3 O + is its conjugate acid CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O CH 3 NH 3 + + OH- H 2 O is the acid, OH- is its conjugate base CH 3 NH 2 is the base, CH 3 NH 3 + is its conjugate acid H 2 O( l ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) H 2 O and H 3 O + are an acid-base conjugate pair H 2 O and OH - are an acid-base conjugate pair H 2 O( l ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) The equilibrium constant for this reaction is called K w K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-14 K w changes with temperature and is equal to 1.0 x 10-14 at 25 o C. Autoionization reaction is endothermic H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) In pure water, [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-14 K w = [H 3 O + ] 2 = 1.0 x 10-14 [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M Addition of an acid or a base to water causes the H 3 O + and OH- concentrations to change....
View Full Document

Page1 / 91

Chapter 15 - Acid : a substance that produces H 3 O + when...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 17. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online