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Chapter 11 - Liquids and Solids State gas liquid Volume...

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Liquids and Solids
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State Volume Shape of Sample Density Compressibility gas assumes shape and volume of container low easily compressed liquid definite volume, assumes shape of container high nearly incompressible solid both definite shape and volume high nearly incompressible
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Physical State Relation between Energy of Attraction and Kinetic Energy of Molecules Solid Kinetic Energy << Energy of Attraction Liquid Kinetic Energy ~ Energy of Attraction Gas Kinetic Energy >> Energy of Attraction
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Electrostatic forces account for all types of intermolecular attractions. There are three kinds of attractions: dipole-dipole attraction London dispersion forces hydrogen bonding
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Dipole-dipole attractions result from the electrostatic forces between molecular dipoles.
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These forces arise from the attractions between instantaneous dipoles and induced dipoles.
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Substance Molar mass Boiling point ( o C) CH 4 16 -184 SiH 4 32 -112 GeH 4 77 -90 SnH 4 123 -52 F 2 38 -188 Cl 2 71 -35 Br 2 160 59 I 2 254 184
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The unexpectedly high boiling points of water, ammonia, and hydrogen fluoride requires another kind of intermolecular force
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