Early Civilizations

Early Civilizations - Early Civilizations Mesopotamia Means...

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Early Civilizations
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Mesopotamia Means the land between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates Long, hot summers and harsh, cold winters Rainfall is minimal and unpredictable Few permanent sources of water except Tigris and Euphrates Good alluvial soils productive when watered
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Early Communities ‘Ubaid 5800BC clusters of communities Focus on main Euphrates channel Small rural communities centered on larger town Several miles of irrigation canals watered fields Grew barley and dates, raised cattle, sheep and goats Mud brick and reed huts with roofs of bent sticks
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Large ‘Ubaid Settlements Covered 10 ha with 2500 to 4000 people Large buildings, systems of alleys, court yards, and ceremonial structures Elites lived in these towns, associated with temple Craftspeople close by elites and temple Farmers in the hinterland settlements
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Cities: Uruk, The First City Began as a small town By 4500 BC flourishing city Covered over 600 acres with satellite communities for miles beyond Extensively provisioned by hinterland Densely packed with house blocks, alley ways, courtyards Likely different neighborhoods
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Temples On a stepped pyramid: Ziggurat Associated storehouses, workshops, and administrative facilities Center of power in Mesopotamian societies Owned land, collect rent from peasants, employed crafters Run by hierarchy of priests Head of priesthood, head of society
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The Temple at Eridu Eridu home of Enki, God of the Abyss The source of human wisdom Created order from chaos Huge, ziggurat on a platform enclosed within a wall Face covered with brightly colored bricks As many as 11 versions of the temple spanning 500 years
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Early Civilizations - Early Civilizations Mesopotamia Means...

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