presentation3 - CHAPTER 3 Visual Displays of Data: Graphs...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 3 Visual Displays of Data: Graphs That Tell a Story Uses of Graphs Positive and negative uses Can reveal/conceal complicated data Persuade other s to change their attitudes or behaviors Leads others to ask better question Graphing in the information age: a critical skill Graph often tell us information about their creator because they can used either to deceive or to clarify information Figure 3-1: The Most Misleading Graph Ever PublishedThe Cost and Quality of Higher Education Lie 1: The graph treats unequal scales as if they were equal. Lie 2: The graph unites incompatible scales. Lie 3: The graph uses misleading starting points for incompatible scale. Lie 4: The graph reverses the implied meaning of up and Figure 3-2: Graphs That Illuminate The Best Statistical Graph Ever CreatedNapoleons Disastrous March to Moscow In search of a clearer graph: Which of the two graphs is misleading? Common Types of Graphs: A Graph Designers Building Blocks Scatterplots Displays the relationship between two interval variables The values of each variable are marked along the two axes and a mark is formed to indicate the intersection of these two points Create a scatterplot Organize the data by participant so that each participant have two scores label the x-axis with the independent variable and y-axis with the dependent variable. For each participants, place a mark on the graph above the score on each axis. To set a range-frame, erase the axes below the minimum and above the maximum scores Graph Linear Nonlinear relation A linear relation means that the relation between the two variables is best described using a straight line Positive relationship: flows up and to the right Negative relationship: flows down to the right Nonlinear relation : the relationship between the two variables is best described using a line that breaks or curves. Figure 3-4: Scatterplot of Hours Studied and Statistics Grade Figure 3-5: A Range-Frame Improves on a Scatterplot Figure 3-6: A Scatterplot and an Outlier Line graphs Line graph used to illustrate the relation between two interval variables; sometimes the line represents the predicted y scores for each x value, and sometimes the line represents change in a variable over time. Searching for trends Line of best fit Time series plot Line Graph 1. Label the x-axis with the name of the independent variable and its possible values, start with 0 if practical 2. Label the y-axis with the name of dependent variable 3. Make a mark above each study participants score on the x-axis and next to his or her score on the y-axis 4. To convert to a range frame, erase the axes below the minimum and above the maximum. Time Plot Time Plot: time series plot, is a graph that plots an interval variable on the y-axis as it changes over an increment of time (e.g., second, day, century) labeled on the x-axis. Figure 3-8: The Line of Best Fit...
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presentation3 - CHAPTER 3 Visual Displays of Data: Graphs...

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