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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 3 Visual Displays of Data: Graphs That Tell a Story Uses of Graphs Positive and negative uses Can reveal/conceal complicated data Persuade other s to change their attitudes or behaviors Leads others to ask better question Graphing in the information age: a critical skill Graph often tell us information about their creator because they can used either to deceive or to clarify information Figure 31: The Most Misleading Graph Ever PublishedThe Cost and Quality of Higher Education Lie 1: The graph treats unequal scales as if they were equal. Lie 2: The graph unites incompatible scales. Lie 3: The graph uses misleading starting points for incompatible scale. Lie 4: The graph reverses the implied meaning of up and Figure 32: Graphs That Illuminate The Best Statistical Graph Ever CreatedNapoleons Disastrous March to Moscow In search of a clearer graph: Which of the two graphs is misleading? Common Types of Graphs: A Graph Designers Building Blocks Scatterplots Displays the relationship between two interval variables The values of each variable are marked along the two axes and a mark is formed to indicate the intersection of these two points Create a scatterplot Organize the data by participant so that each participant have two scores label the xaxis with the independent variable and yaxis with the dependent variable. For each participants, place a mark on the graph above the score on each axis. To set a rangeframe, erase the axes below the minimum and above the maximum scores Graph Linear Nonlinear relation A linear relation means that the relation between the two variables is best described using a straight line Positive relationship: flows up and to the right Negative relationship: flows down to the right Nonlinear relation : the relationship between the two variables is best described using a line that breaks or curves. Figure 34: Scatterplot of Hours Studied and Statistics Grade Figure 35: A RangeFrame Improves on a Scatterplot Figure 36: A Scatterplot and an Outlier Line graphs Line graph used to illustrate the relation between two interval variables; sometimes the line represents the predicted y scores for each x value, and sometimes the line represents change in a variable over time. Searching for trends Line of best fit Time series plot Line Graph 1. Label the xaxis with the name of the independent variable and its possible values, start with 0 if practical 2. Label the yaxis with the name of dependent variable 3. Make a mark above each study participants score on the xaxis and next to his or her score on the yaxis 4. To convert to a range frame, erase the axes below the minimum and above the maximum. Time Plot Time Plot: time series plot, is a graph that plots an interval variable on the yaxis as it changes over an increment of time (e.g., second, day, century) labeled on the xaxis. Figure 38: The Line of Best Fit...
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 Fall '10
 Fairchild

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