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chapter 1

# chapter 1 - An Introduction to Statistics and Research...

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An Introduction to Statistics and Research Design: The Elements of Statistical Reasoning Aug. 20, 2010

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Two Branches of Statistics: Growing Our Knowledge about Human Behavior Descriptive statistics Organizing, summarizing, and communicating numerical information Inferential statistics Using samples to draw conclusions about a population
Distinguishing Between a Sample and a Population Population of the world Population of United States or sample from the world Population of our school or sample from our country Population of our class or sample from our school

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Example the health Study of Nord-Trondelag County of Norway (HUNT) surveyed more than 60,000 people in a Norwegian county and reported that “people who have gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, are more likely to have anxiety disorders or depression than people who do not have such symptoms.” What is the sample used by these researchers? What is the population to which the researchers would like to extend their findings?
Variables Transforming observations into numbers An example: Stroop Test. Reaction Time. The time to say the colors compared to the time to say the word.

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Stroop Demonstration Stroop Demonstration Look at the following words and say each word as quickly as you can: WHITE RED GREEN
Now look at the following words and say the color of the font, not what the word says, as quickly as you can.

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WHITE RED GREEN BROWN
Variables Discrete variable: Nominal variables use categories or names for their value Ordinal Variables refer to values that are ranked Continuous Variable: Interval Variable take numerical form, and the distance between pairs of consecutive number is assumed to be equal.

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