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Lecture1standard - Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr....

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Unformatted text preview: Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Lecture 6: Populations, Samples and Processes Devore: Section 1.1-1.2 Oct, 2011 Page 1 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Populations and Samples A population is a well-defined collection of objects. When information is available for the entire population we have a census . A subset of the population is a sample . Univariate data consists of observations on a single variable ( multivariate- more than two variables). Oct, 2011 Page 2 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Example of an Experiment: Coin Spinning It is claimed sometimes that the coin spinning produces outcomes different from tossing the same coin. In particular, one often hears that the likelihood of obtaining heads (H) is less than 50% in that case 1. Choose a penny. What is the chance of obtaining H by spinning that penny? Also, are two pennies equally likely to produce H when spun? 2. Choose several pennies minted before 1982 and several pennies minted after 1982 . As groups, are pre- 1982 pennies and post- 1982 pennies equally likely to produce H when spun? (Before 1982- 95% copper and 5% zinc; after 1982- 97 . 5% zinc and 2 . 5% copper) Oct, 2011 Page 3 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Example of an Experiment: Determination of the Speed of Light First thoughts: Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes... Finite speed of light - Galilei..First evidence - Ole Romer in 1676 Also, James Bradley in 1729 and Jean-Baptiste Joseph Delambre in 1809 First experiment by Fizeau in 1849; further refined by Foucault in 1851 and Michelson in 1879 100 observations were collected; distance between mirrors was measured several times, the distance from the revolving mirror to the eyepiece of the micrometer had to be measured as well...Final result - 299 , 944 51 km/sec Oct, 2011 Page 4 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Branches of Statistics Often, the first task after the data collection is to summarize the data This may involve using both graphical methods and calculation of numerical summary measures....
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Lecture1standard - Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr....

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