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Unformatted text preview: Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Lecture 6: Populations, Samples and Processes Devore: Section 1.11.2 Oct, 2011 Page 1 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Populations and Samples A population is a welldefined collection of objects. When information is available for the entire population we have a census . A subset of the population is a sample . Univariate data consists of observations on a single variable ( multivariate more than two variables). Oct, 2011 Page 2 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Example of an Experiment: Coin Spinning • It is claimed sometimes that the coin spinning produces outcomes different from tossing the same coin. In particular, one often hears that the likelihood of obtaining heads (H) is less than 50% in that case • 1. Choose a penny. What is the chance of obtaining H by spinning that penny? Also, are two pennies equally likely to produce H when spun? 2. Choose several pennies minted before 1982 and several pennies minted after 1982 . As groups, are pre 1982 pennies and post 1982 pennies equally likely to produce H when spun? (Before 1982 95% copper and 5% zinc; after 1982 97 . 5% zinc and 2 . 5% copper) Oct, 2011 Page 3 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Example of an Experiment: Determination of the Speed of Light • First thoughts: Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Johannes Kepler, Rene Descartes... • Finite speed of light  Galilei..First evidence  Ole R¨omer in 1676 Also, James Bradley in 1729 and JeanBaptiste Joseph Delambre in 1809 • First experiment by Fizeau in 1849; further refined by Foucault in 1851 and Michelson in 1879 • 100 observations were collected; distance between mirrors was measured several times, the distance from the revolving mirror to the eyepiece of the micrometer had to be measured as well...Final result  299 , 944 ± 51 km/sec Oct, 2011 Page 4 Statistics 511: Statistical Methods Dr. Levine Purdue University Fall 2011 Branches of Statistics • Often, the first task after the data collection is to summarize the data • This may involve using both graphical methods and calculation of numerical summary measures....
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course STAT 511 taught by Professor Bud during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.
 Fall '08
 BUD
 Statistics

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