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Forecasting - Volcanic Hazards Major Volcanic Causes of...

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1 Volcanic Hazards Major Volcanic Causes of Death Deaths Lava Flows 900 Ash Falls 11,000 ? Mud Flows 27,000 Pyroclastic Flows & Surges 55,000 Lateral Blasts (67)?? Volcanic Gases ?? Tsunamis (Volcanic) 45,000? Famine 123,000? TOTAL 262,000
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2 Video - Volcanic Hazards Was made in 1991 by Maurice and Katia Krafft for UNESCO following the unnecessary, loss of life at Nevada del Ruiz in Colombia in 1985. The aim was to clearly and simply illustrate volcanic hazards, so that populations living on, or close to, volcanoes could be better informed. Tragically the Kraffts were killed while filming on Unzen volcano, Japan in 1991. Forecasting and Monitoring Eruptions Long-Term Identification of high-risk volcanoes. Mapping and identifying past volcanic hazards – prepare a volcanic hazards map . Long-term forecasts Short-Term Volcano monitoring in real-time. Eruption forecasting and prediction. Volcanic emergency management and planning – involves government and local authorities, civil defense, park or forest service.
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3 High Risk Volcanoes Which of the 500 or so active volcanoes, or the 1300 dormant volcanoes that have erupted in the last 10,000 years are considered high risk? Criteria are based on:- Past eruptive history. Prevalence of explosive eruptions. Evidence for seismic activity or ground deformation (changes in tilt, distance, height). Proximity to population. 89 High risk volcanoes have been identified:- 42 in Southeast Asia. 40 in the Americas and Caribbean. 7 in Europe and Africa. DANGER!! Lack of information, or a long dormant period, may exclude potentially hazardous volcanoes from this list (e.g. Mount Lamington, 1955; El Chichon, 1982).
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4 Identifying and Mapping Volcanic Hazards Based on a careful study of the geological record of a volcano and the surroundings.
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