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Hawaii Intro - Hawaiian Volcanism Hawaiian Emperor Seamont...

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Hawaii Hawaiian Volcanism Hawaiian - Emperor Seamont Chain The Hawaiian Islands
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Age Progression of Hawaiian Volcanoes The age progression of the volcanoes along the Hawaiian – Emperor seamont chain corresponds to a 9-10 cm/year north- west movement of the Pacific plate over a stationary mantle plume. Kilauea is currently active, so is close to the present location of the plume Hawaii The age progression even applies to the Hawaiian Islands themselves. ?
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Video showing origin of Hotspots THE GREAT PLUME DEBATE What Plume Debate? Courtillot et al (2003) recognize about 49 hotspots:- 1. Primary plumes from the Core/Mantle boundary (7 – 10). 2. Plumes associated with Superswells (about 20). 3. Non-plumes from the upper mantle (about 20).
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Seismic tomography (Montelli et al. 2004) Tahiti/Cook 300 650 1000 1450 1900 2350 2800 Hawaii Iceland
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Mauna Kea Hualalai Mauna Loa Kilauea Kohala The Island of Hawaii The Volcanoes Kohala Mauna Kea Hualalai Mauna Loa Kilauea Loihi Loihi - the next island? Loihi is currently about 1,000 m below sea level. It last erupted in 1999.
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Mauna Loa Volcano 13,679 feet Mauna Loa rises 33,000 feet from the ocean floor! Comparison of Mauna Loa and Mt. Rainier!
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Stages of Volcanism There are 6 stages of HawaiianVolcanism: (modified from 4 stages initially proposed by Stearns (1938) 1. Submarine 2. Emergent 3. Shield 4. Post-Shield 5. Erosional 6. Post Erosional Submarine Stage (Loihi) Emergent Stage (No example) Shield Building Stage (Mauna Loa, Kilauea) Post-Shield Stage (Mauna Kea, Hualalai)
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Submarine Stage Bathymetric map of submarine Loihi volcano, showing summit caldera and two rift zones. Loihi last erupted in 1999.
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