Iceland - Iceland can be considered volcanologist heaven 1)...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Iceland can be considered volcanologist “heaven” 1) Sub-aerial continuation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 2) Intersection of a mantle plume with a spreading ocean ridge 3) Volcanism associated with tectonic rifting 4) Sub-glacial volcanism 5) Tertiary flood (plateau) basalts 6) Bi-modal volcanism 7) Submarine volcanism 8) 18 historically active volcanoes 9) Eruptions roughly every 5 years 1. The North Atlantic opened about 54 Ma separating Greenland from Europe. 2. Spreading was initially along the now extinct Agir ridge (AER). 3. The Icelandic plume was under Greenland at that time. 4. The Greenland – Faeroe ridge represents the plume track during the history of the NE Atlantic. 5. During the last 20 Ma the Icelandic rift zones have migrated eastward, stepwise, maintaining their position near the plume 6. The plume center is thought to be beneath Vatnajökull Kolbeinsey ridge (KR) Reykjanes Ridge (RR)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Tertiary volcanics > 3.1 Ma Late Tertiary to Early Quaternary 3.1 – 0.7 Ma Neo-volcanic zone <0.7 - present North Rift Zone – currently active East Rift Zone – currently active West Rift Zone – last erupted about 1000-1300 AD [Also eastern (Or±fajökull) and western (Sn±fellsnese) flank zones] Rift zones comprise en-echelon basaltic fissure swarms 5-15 km wide and up to 200 km long. Over time these fissures swarms develop a volcanic center, eventually maturing into a central volcano with a caldera and silicic volcanism Iceland’s mantle plume has been tomographically imaged down to 400 km. Some claim even deeper, through the transition zone, and down to the core – mantle boundary. Schematic representation of Iceland’s mantle plume.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 17

Iceland - Iceland can be considered volcanologist heaven 1)...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online