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Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Comm 120 Study Guide Chapter 4...

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Comm 120 Study Guide Chapter 4- Perceiving Others - Realities : Meaning is created in and among people o First Order Reality - Physically observable qualities of a thing or situation Ex: Grandma giving you a hug o Second Order Reality - Involve attaching meaning to first-order things or situations; Reside in our minds Ex: Grandma hugs you; (Thought) It’s appropriate for grandparents to hug their grandchildren o Other realities: First: Friend calls you “bonehead” Second: Friend is being critical (Thought) Friend Second: That remark was a joke (Thought) o Problems arise when we don’t share our 2 nd -order realities - Perception process o Selection : Selecting what data to attend to; several factors make us notice some messages and ignore others Intense stimuli -attract our attention; EX: louder, brighter, larger Repetitious Stimuli - repeated to get our attention Contrast and change in stimulation : Unchanging people or things become less noticeable o Organization : Arranging information we have collected into meaningful ways to make sense of the world Can be organized in more than one way Perception schema - Cognital frameworks that allow us to give order to the information we have selected 4 types : Physical Constructs : Ex: appearance beautiful, ugly, fat, thin Role Constructs : ex: student, attorney, doctor, wife, teach Interaction Constructs : social behavior Friendly, helpful, sarcastic Psychological Constructs : Internal states of mind confident, insecure, happy Once we have selected an organizing scheme to classify people, we use that to make generalizations Punctuation: Describes the determination of causes and effects in a series of interactions Ex: Husband and wife argument Who started it? o Wife says husband withdraws o Husband says wife nags o Interpretation: Once we select and organize our perceptions, we make sense of them through interpretation
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Relational Satisfaction : The behavior that seems positive when you are happy with a partner is not when you are dissatisfied with them Expectations: You will most likely get what you expect to get Personal Experience: Learn from the past to avoid mistakes/situations Assumptions about human behavior: EX: assume people are lazy *Perception is an ongoing process in which it is hard to pin down beginnings/ends - Negotiation: Takes place among people o Process by which communicators influence each other’s perceptions through communication Narratives
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