class note 1 - [POSITIVES for TS]  Introduction of a...

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Unformatted text preview: [POSITIVES for TS]  Introduction of a human dimension !  Its focus on hybridity undoes many of the binary oppositions and dichotomies typical of previous theories  Complementary to other paradigms (hybridity, cross ­cultural movements, intermediary positions, etc.)  In current multicultural societies, translation has a major role to play: • fostering understanding ! • while at the same time recognizing culture difference [NEGATIVES for TS] Some of the most common criticisms levelled against ‘Cultural translation’ theories: a) THESE THEORIES ONLY USE TRANSLATION AS A METAPHOR b) CULTURAL TRANSLATION IS AN EXCUSE FOR INTELLECTUAL WANDERING c) CULTURAL TRANSLATION IS A SPACE FOR WEAK INTERDISCIPLINARITY d) CULTURAL TRANSLATION CAN BE STUDIED ENTIRELY IN ENGLISH e) CULTURAL TRANSLATION IS NOT IN TOUCH WITH THE TRANSLATION PROFESSION [NEGATIVES for TS] Rajendra Singh (2005) “Some unfinished reflections on the cultural turn in translation studies” !Contemporary translation theory tends to focus on issues that may actually not belong to Translation Studies (2005: 57) Harish Trivedi (2005) “Translating Culture vs. Cultural Translation” If there is one thing that Cultural Translation is not, it is the translation of culture Why using the word ‘translation’ in this new sense, when perfectly good words for this new phenomenon, such as migrancy, exile or diaspora are already available and current? The existence of this term ‘Cultural Translation’ “spells the very extinction and erasure of translation as we have always known and practised it” (2005: 251). [NEGATIVES for TS] Cultural translation is... • Ultimately utopian rather than programmatic for translation proper. • Ultimately misleading with respect to understanding both the role of the translator and the notion of ideological engagement itself, inasmuch as it implies a failure to recognize the ideological position of the translator • Ultimately incompatible with a view of languages as formal systems that actually construct meaning rather than as structures that merely reflect external, language ­ free meaning. IDEOLOGICAL TURN THE IDEOLOGICAL TURN IMPLIES:  ­studying how different levels of ideology are operative in the translation process  ­the integration of !! CULTURAL DIMENSION LINGUISTIC APPROACHES ! COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES  ­with the aim of RAISING AWARENESS IN THEMSELVES (AS TRANSLATORS) AND IN READERS OF THE PREVALENT INFLUENCE OF IDEOLOGY IN DISCOURSE TRANSLATORS MAKE DECISIONS ACCORDING TO: 1) Properties of (source) texts 2) The translator ́s individual experience of language 3) Member ́s resources 4) Poetics and norms of the (target) society “an interplay between properties of texts and a considerable range of members’s resources which people have in their heads and draw upon when they produce or interpret texts – including their knowledge of language, representations of the natural and social worlds they inhabit, values, beliefs, assumptions, and so on”. (Fairclough 1989: 24) 3) MEMBERʼS RESOURCES – THE TRANSLATORʼS IDEOLOGY • “Ideology rather than linguistics or aesthetics crucially determines the operational choices of translators” (Cronin 2000: 695). • Defining ideology NOT as a deviation from some posited norm (the traditional sense) but rather as a “systematic set of values and beliefs shared by a particular community that shapes the way each person interprets and represents the world. Ideology permeates every act of knowledge” (Althusser 1971). • TRANSLATOR ́S TURN (Robinson 1991) Translators are (linguistic, cultural and IDEOLOGICAL) mediators, understanding MEDIATION as the extent to which translators intervene in the transfer process, feeding their own knowledge and beliefs into their processing of a text. • POWER TURN (Gentzler and Tymoczko 2002) Translating means negotiating power relations between cultures, so “the cultural turn in Translation Studies has become the power turn” (Gentzler and Tymoczko 2002: xvi) DOMINANT IDEOLOGY (Althusser 1971)  ­in the numerical sense (most people share that view)  ­it supports the interests of the dominant, hegemonic class UNCONSCIOUS IDEOLOGY  ­becomes omnipresent and, for that very reason, goes unrecognised DOMINANT IDEOLOGY operates on an unconscious level [it] imposes (without appearing to do, since these are ‘obviousness’), obviousness as obviousness, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (loud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): “That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!”. (Althusser 1971: 161) THE TRANSLATORʼS INTERVENTION 1/ CONSCIOUS :  ­DOMINANT  ­ALTERNATIVE 2/ UNCONSCIOUS (denying their intervention, claiming to be unbiased, etc)  ­DOMINANT (the norm) RISK becoming instruments of hegemonic power without being aware of it POETICS – THE IDEOLOGY OF TRANSLATION • Set of NORMS and expectations  ­ “when translators do what is expected of them they will be seen to have done well” (Hermans 1993: 166). • In this ideology of translation, the norms and expectations overlap with the hegemonic and dominant ideology • It influences the TRANSLATOR’S (INDIVIDUAL) IDEOLOGY The target culture conditions its translators to translate in accordance with normative methods that it believes will best serve social utility. [...] The [target] society conditions the translator to an idealized omniscience that sees everything the society considers normal (and thus normative) and ignores everything it considers deviant. (Robinson 1997: 75) THE IDEOLOGICAL TURN 1/ Tendency towards reproducing the dominant ideology 2/ By reproducing it, dominant ideology is also perpetuated – POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES 3/ Possibility of using translations as a SORT OF RESISTANCE, as an instrument for SOCIAL CHANGE -Feminist translation -Postcolonial translation ...
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