part3 - PART 3 Review Of Third Generation Architecture And...

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PART 3 Review Of Third Generation Architecture And Runtime Systems CS 503 - PART 3 1 2010
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Location Of Hardware In The Hierarchy CS 503 - PART 3 2 2010
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Features Of A Third Generation Machine d Processor d Memory system d I / O Devices d Interrupts CS 503 - PART 3 3 2010
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Processor d Instruction set d General-purpose and special-purpose registers d Addressing modes d Protection states d ROM code CS 503 - PART 3 4 2010
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What Interface Does An Operating System See? TRANSISTORS DISCRETE LOGIC PROGRAMABLE LOGIC VERTICAL MICROCODE HORIZONTAL MICROCODE ROM BIOS I/O BUS ......................................................................................................................... instruction set interface d Multiple levels of hardware d Each level contributes d Result is instruction set CS 503 - PART 3 5 2010
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Effective Instruction Set Composition d d Microcode Low-level ( horizontal ) High-level ( vertical ) d ROM routines Example: BIOS functions on a PC d Note: OS can use all CS 503 - PART 3 6 2010
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Registers d Local storage d Store active values during computation (e.g., used to compute an expression) d Saved and restored during subprogram invocation d May control processor mode and address space visibility CS 503 - PART 3 7 2010
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Memory System d Defines size of a byte , the smallest addressable unit d Important property: endianness d Provides address space, typically Monolithic Linear d Includes caching CS 503 - PART 3 8 2010
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Byte Order d Order of bytes in integer d Least-significant byte at lowest address Called Little Endian d Most-significant byte at lowest address Called Big Endian CS 503 - PART 3 9 2010
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Memory Caches d Special-purpose hardware units d Speed memory access d Less expensive than high-speed memory d Placed “between” CPU and memory CS 503 - PART 3 10 2010
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Of Memory Cache CPU MAIN MEMORY memory cache d All references (including instruction fetch) go through cache d Multi-level cache possible d Key question: are virtual or physical addresses cached? CS 503
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part3 - PART 3 Review Of Third Generation Architecture And...

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