ch12 - Chapter 12: Making Text for the Web 1 2 HyperText...

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Chapter 12: Making Text for the Web 1
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HyperText Markup Language (HTML) HTML is a kind of SGML (Standardized General Markup Language) SGML was invented by IBM and others as a way of defining parts of a document . HTML is a simpler form of SGML, but with a similar goal. The original idea of HTML was to define the parts of the document and their relation to one another without defining what it was supposed to look like. The look of the document would be decided by the client (browser) and its limitations. For example, a document would look different on a PDA than on your laptop or on your cellphone. Or in Internet Explorer vs. Firefox vs. Safari vs…. 3
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Evolution of HTML But with the explosive growth of the Web, HTML has become much more. Now, people want to control the look-and-feel of the page down to the pixels and fonts. Plus, we want to grab information more easily out of Web pages. Leading to XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. XML allows for new kinds of markup languages (that, say, explicitly identify prices or stock ticker codes) for business purposes. 4
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Three kinds of HTML languages Original HTML: Simple, what the earliest browsers understood. CSS, Cascading Style Sheets Ways of defining more of the formatting instructions than HTML allowed. XHTML: HTML re-defined in terms of XML. A little more complicated to use, but more standardized, more flexible, more powerful. XHTML is the future of where the Web is going. 5
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When to use each? Bigger sites should use XHTML and CSS XHTML enforces accessibility requirements so that your documents can be read by Braille browsers and audio browsers. HTML is easiest for simple websites. For this class, we’ll be focusing on HTML. We’re not going to get into much of the formatting side of XHTML nor CSS—detailed, and isn’t the same on all browsers. 6
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Markup means adding tags A markup language adds tags to regular text to identify its parts. A tag in HTML is enclosed by <angle brackets>. Most tags have a starting tag and an ending tag. A paragraph is identified by a <p> at its start and a </p> at its end. An h1 heading is identified by a <h1> at its start and a </h1> at its end. 7
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HTML is just text in a file We enter our text and our tags in just a plain old ordinary text file. Use an extension of “.html” (“.htm” if your computer only allows three characters) to indicate HTML. JES works just fine for editing and saving HTML files. 8
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You start with a DOCTYPE It tells browsers what kind of language you’re using below. It’s gory and technical—copy it verbatim from somewhere.
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2012 for the course CS 177 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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ch12 - Chapter 12: Making Text for the Web 1 2 HyperText...

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