04Ch13 - Lauren Taranow (lmt827) Section 48950 Problems and...

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Lauren Taranow (lmt827) Section 48950 Problems and Questions for Chapter 13 Material From Brooker, pages 355-356 (3 rd edition, pages 356-358) Read and consider (but do not submit answers for) questions S2 and S4. Answer questions C16, C23, C24, C26, and the additional questions below. C16. Discuss the significance of modified bases within tRNA molecules. Transfer RNA molecules contain rare bases in their arms that are well-conserved and have very important functions in achieving proper folding of the tertiary structure, which will increase speed and accuracy of translation. Modified bases in the anticodon region of a RNA molecule function in allowing an anticodon to recognize multiple different codons which will code for the same amino acid. C23. What are the three stages of translation? Discuss the main events that occur during these three stages. In initiation, the small ribosomal subunit, along with initiation factors, bind to each other, the first tRNA binds to both, and the large subunit binds to small to make a ribosome. In elongation, mRNA is translated codon by codon into amino acids by tRNA with corresponding anticodons. The amino end of a new amino acid will covalently bind to the carboxyl group of the growing chaint through a dehydration reaction, forming a polypeptide. In termination, a stop codon is reached, and no tRNA has an anticodon that will bind to the stop codon. The completed polypeptide is released and the ribosomal subunits dissociate. C24. Describe the sequence in bacterial mRNA that promotes recognition by the 30S subunit. Bacterial mRNA has a conserved sequence called the Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the 5’ untranslated region upstream of the start
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04Ch13 - Lauren Taranow (lmt827) Section 48950 Problems and...

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