Lecture-02 - Lecture #02 Todays Objectives Layering and the...

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Lecture #02
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Today’s Objectives • Layering and the OSI Stack • Standards Groups
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Protocol “Layers” Networks are complex! • many “pieces”: – hosts – routers Questions: Is there any hope of rganizing tructure of – links of various media – applications – protocols – hardware, software organizing structure of network? Or at least our discussion of networks?
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Divide Functions into Layers Dealing with complex systems: • explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system’s pieces – layered reference model for discussion odularization eases maintenance, updating of system modularization eases maintenance, updating of system – change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system – e.g., change in type of truck doesn’t affect rest of system • drawbacks – duplication of functionality – need for information across layers
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Protocol Suites • Groups of protocols/layers are organized into “protocol suites” • These protocol suites are represented as “models” and describe: layers, functions at each layer, protocol relationships • Two common models ternational Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect – International Standards Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnect (OSI) 7-layer model – Internet TCP/IP Stack: very similar to OSI model, but lacking in two layers • All models are just that: models, guides, examples – There will be instances when the model is ignored or doesn’t reflect reality—be sure to just use these models as a guide to follow
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• application: supporting network applications – FTP, SMTP, STTP • transport: “value-added” services on top of network layer – TCP, UDP application transport • network: delivery of data end-to-end – IP, routing protocols • data link: communication across a single hop – PPP, Ethernet • physical: bits “on the wire” network data link physical
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Lecture-02 - Lecture #02 Todays Objectives Layering and the...

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