Classics Lecture 3

Classics Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 The Trojan War: Texts,...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Lecture 3 The Trojan War: Texts, archaeology, and Heinrich Schliemann Some monuments were never lost from human view. Left: Giza, the Sphinx & the Great Pyramid. Right: Temple Abu Simbel Pompeii & Lord Hamilton (we knew about from ancient literature, e.g. Pliny the Elder) The Athenian Acropolis (another monument never lost from human view) Mycenae, Lions Gate • Writing in the 2nd century AD, Pausanias, that indefatigable traveler, focused on the Lion’s Gate at Mycenae as a monument that was a “must-see,” as it remains today • In Book 2.15-16, Pausanias writes: • “Having ascended the Tretos & resumed the road to Argos, we have on the left the ruins of Mycenae…. • …parts of the circuit wall are still left, including the gate, which is surmounted by lions….. Mycenae • …these [walls] are said to be the work of the Cyclopes, who made the walls of Tiryns for Proteus.” • These are Late Helladic, but the Greeks of the Classical era could not believe they had been wrought by mortal hands, and so claimed they were “Cyclopean” – constructed by the one-eyed giants, the Cyclopes • This is the earliest extant photo of Mycenae, dating to 1859, before the excavations of Heinrich Schliemann • To what extent it shows what Pausanias saw, we may never know…. Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) • In the later part of the 19th century there was something of a revolution, brought about by one man • Schliemann’s passion was to prove the validity of the Homeric epic • First to have uncovered the prehistoric Aegean • Earlier travelers (Cyriacus, Spon, Byron, etc.) focused on Classical remains • Wilhelm Dörpfeld Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) • German businessman & banker, made a fortunate & retired at the age of 46 • Modern scholarship & a love-hate relationship with Schliemann (habitual liar?) • One recent scholar has said: “Every profession has its hero, the man of genius whose struggles & accomplishment seem to personify the highest aspirations of his chosen field & who captures the imagination of the general public. In archaeology that unique hero has long been Heinrich Schliemann” • Not everyone believed that he found Troy. One of his contemporaries wrote: “Imagination is a very important qualification for an archaeologist to posses….but in proportion to the strength of his power, a counterpoise of judgment is necessary, otherwise the imagination gets loose and runs riot. Dr. Schliemann is, undoubtedly, an able man; but he must be credited with a vast amount of this sort of unbalanced imagination in order to explain the creations which he has produced out of the explorations of Hissarlik” Troy – Ilion/Ilium – Hissarlik Troy – Ilion/Ilium – Hissarlik Schliemann was not the first to work at His(s)arlik • Which means in Turkish “Place of the Fort” • The person who first argued that the legendary Troy may have been at the site of New Ilion/Ilium was Charles Maclaren, but Maclaren never visited the Troad; he wrote from his desk in Edinburgh • The person who knew the Troad better than anyone else in the 19th century was Frank Calvert, who was one of the first to try to identify the site of Troy and he was the first to identify Hissarlik as Homer’s Troy. Calvert bought the site of Hissarlik in 1864 and in 1865 conducted trial trenches in four places. Although he can be claimed as the discoverer of Troy, • the glory was to go to Heinrich Schliemann: Heinrich Schliemann • In the summer of 1868, at 5 in the morning on August 14th, an unlikelylooking visitor picked his way on horseback through the sandy riverbed and marshy thickets of the Menderes River in the northwest corner of Turkey, by the Dardanelles. He was a little man with a round, bullet-like head (as a friend described him), very little hair and a reddish face with spectacles; another friend described him as “round-headed, round-faced, round-hatted, great-round-goggle eyes.” At 10am he came to an extensive rubble-strewn plateau, the site of the classical city of New Ilium (the other name for Troy has Ilion or Ilium). He walked its 1 ½ mile circumference, noting the traces of its circuit wall. Finally, he ascended a smaller hill, called Hissarlik in the northwest corner of the site, about 100 feet above the plain, 30 feet above the spur of the plateau; there he inspected an excavation made earlier by its owner, Frank Calvert, who had laid bare part of the podium of a temple. The site, Schliemann later wrote: “fully agrees with the description Homer gives of Ilion and I will add that, as soon as one sets foot on the Trojan Plain, the view of the beautiful hill of Hissarlik grips one with astonishment. That hill seems destined by nature to carry a great city …. there is no other place in the whole region to compare with it.” Troy – Hissarlik Troy - Hissarlik • Small citadel mound made of about 25m of accumulated debris (human occupation) & a lower town about 1 km square • After Schliemann, excavations continued by Dörpfeld in 1893-1894 • And from 1932-1938 by Carl Blegen • German team continues to this day • Site occupied 3000 BC – AD 1200 • Well over 50 building phases conventionally grouped into nine layers, often called cities • Layers I-III Early Bronze Age (3000-2200); IV-V Middle Bronze Age (2200-1600) • Layer VI (with the earlier parts of VII) Late Bronze Age (=Mycenaean), VI (& sometimes VIIa) equated with the Trojan War • VIIb-IX post Bronze Age Troy 0 (Zero)! • Trojan War is NOT an historic event & it is uncertain that Hissarlik = Troy Troy – Hissarlik Schliemann’s trenches Towers of Troy VI Sophia Schliemann (Engastromenou) & Priam’s treasure (ca. 2600-2300 BC) Priam’s Treasure, ca. 2600-2300 B.C. Fragments of Mycenaean pottery from Troy VI Iliad, Odyssey, Kypria, Little Iliad, Ilioupersis Homer ca. 700 BC • Wrote Iliad, the great battle fought between the Greeks collectively and the Trojans, and the Odyssey, about Odysseus 10 years wandering after the Trojan War • Set in the Heroic Age, centuries before Homer • The poems are not “history,” but a story, part myth, part legend and, dare we say, part truth • Iliad is longer (15,600 lines) divided into 24 books (chapters) • Books 2-22 record merely four days of fighting from the tenth year (intense). The rest add only a few weeks • Rest of the story told in other poems: Cypria (preliminaries to the war: such as Judgment of Paris & Rape of Helen) • Little Iliad (tells of, among others, the suicide of Ajax & the entry of the wooden horse) • Iliou Persis (graphic Sack of Troy) Homer’s poems sung by bards: the Iliad and the Odyssey (also later stories like the Kypria, Little Iliad, Ilioupersis that completed the cycle). The same stories painted by Greek artists Judgment of Paris (Beauty Contest) Achilles Walls of Troy Hektor & Menelaos fighting over Euphorbos Odysseus, Diomedes, Dolon, Rhesos Death of Sarpedon (killed by Patroklos) Achilles & the Tomb of Patroklos Ilioupersis (Sack of Troy) Mykonos Pithos (ca. 670 B.C.) & the Trojan horse Mykonos Pithos & the Trojan Horse The new Trojan horse Blinding of Cyclops (Polyphemos) Circe, Penelope & Telemachos Excavations at Mycenae (1874-1876) Lions Gate, Mycenae (1350-1200 B.C.) Excavations at Tiryns (1884-1886) Tiryns (corbelling) Christos Tsountas (1857-1934) & the Cyclades Cycladic figurines (Early Cycladic I-III = 3000-2200 B.C.) Folded-arm variety The Canonical figure: the folded arm variety (left). The earliest of the folded arm type = Kapsala (2700-2400/2300 BC), named after the cemetery on Amorgos (often left over right arm) Three views of an early Cycladic marble figurine of the so-called FoldedArm variety (Dokathismata Type), 2700-2400/2300 BC Cycladic figurines (groups & musicians) Groups (or multiple figures): one figure standing on the head of another (note the belly) A few figurines are clearly male, others less so Several are clearly pregnant or recently pregnant What are we dealing with? • • • • • You tell me: Tattooing? Scarification? Makeup, decoration? Or something else? The ritual lament??? Classical Greek red-figure & white-ground showing the ritual lament & the tearing of hair Tsountas: Late Neolithic handmade jar from the site of Dimini in Thessaly, 4th millennium BC (ca. 40003000 BC) Early Neolithic terracotta (clay) figurine from Nea Nikomedeia in Macedonia, ca. 6000 BC Neolithic (New Stone Age) 7000-3000 B.C. • • • • First permanent settled villages Early agriculture (wheat, barley, lentils, beans) Animal husbandry (sheep, goats, cows, pigs) First pottery in Greece Neolithic Sesklo & Dimini ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course CLASSIC 51a taught by Professor Papadapolous during the Spring '12 term at UCLA.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online