Classics Lecture 7, 8

Classics Lecture 7, 8 - Lectures 7 & 8 I. The Face...

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Unformatted text preview: Lectures 7 & 8 I. The Face of Agamemnon: Mycenae & the Mycenaean World II. Making Faces: Physical Anthropology & the Shaft Graves of Mycenae Mycenaean Greece • • • • • • • Mycenae Tiryns Pylos Athens Vapheio Thebes, Gla, Orchomenos Iolkos Late Helladic (ca. 1650/1600-1200/1100 B.C.) Mycenae Plans of three stages in the evolution of the circuit walls at Mycenae • Earliest occupation Middle Helladic – Early Helladic I, ca. 1675 and earlier • Earliest walls date to mid 14th century • Grave Circle A originally outside • Most of the standing walls today date to the mid 13th century • Original excavations, Heinrich Schliemann 1874-1876 • Continued by Christos Tsountas, Alan Wace (BSA) and a whole slew of Greek archaeologists of the Athens Archaeological Society Typical Middle Helladic pottery of the Greek mainland (c. 2100-1600 BC). Right: MH handmade matt-painted jar; Left: Wheelmade “Minyan”-ware goblet (“Minyan” pottery is the first wheelmade pottery on the mainland) Fragment of large handmade Middle Helladic matt-painted pot from Aigina decorated with what is often interpreted as a “surfboard rider,” ca. 2000/1900 – 1600 BC Although habitation at Early Helladic sites continues, there is nothing on the Greek mainland that even resembles the Minoan palaces of the Old Palace Period. MH site of Dorion-Malthi Megaron (Hall) Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns Several Megarons in a Minoan Central Court Grave Circle A excavated by Schliemann (slightly later than Grave Circle B). Both grave circles and their shaft graves date between 1625/1600-1500/1480 (about 5 generations). Schliemann’s excavations at Mycenae 1874-1876 Mycenae Rich in Gold Minoan & Mycenaean iconography in Grave Circle A Grave Circle B and section through typical shaft grave (B=26 graves, 3-4 groups, no regular orientation) All of the Shaft Graves cover five generations Or about one century: 1625/1600-1500/1480 BC Right: Grave Z (Circle B); Left: Skull measurements; Trephination (Skull Γ51) Process of putting on the flesh heads hairless. Note physical similarities The result: three reconstructed shown Two individuals (Σ 131 & Γ 51 with trephination) • Shown in their final “lean” version, one with beard • Large individuals • Well-fed • Close genetic relationships • Based on facial similarities • Problems of extracting DNA • Read pp. 183-223 of your course reader Reconstructions of two women Left: Mycenae Γ 58; Right: Anemospylia (Crete) Pausanias was the first to refer to the walls of Mycenae as built by the Cyclopes Postern gates (sally ports) Secret cistern securing water supply, together with the postern, dating to the latest phase of the citadel – end of the 13th century BC Lion’s Gate (variously dated 1350-1200, closer to 1250 BC) Lintel block: Megalith/monolith made of conglomerate, 4.5m long & weighing some 18 tons. Note relieving triangle Cemeteries outside the citadel post-dating the Shaft Graves; most common are the chamber tombs (dug into earth and bedrock, with a chamber & dromos) Chamber tombs at Dendra (Midea) But the largest and most impressive were the constructed Tholos or Bee-hive tombs, the earliest go back to ca. 1500 BC. The largest of them all: the Treasury of Atreus (1320-1250 BC) Passageway = dromos (note side chamber: unique) Dromos & façade (note different colored stone) and relieving triangle Interior of the Treasury of Atreus. Corbelled; unique in that it is the only Mycenaean Tholos tomb with a subsidiary side chamber (used by shepherds). Largest single span building in Antiquity before Hadrian built the Pantheon in Rome Corbelled arch as opposed to a true arch with keystone Tiryns excavated by Heinrich Schliemann (1884-1886) & currently continued by the German Archaeological Institute (Note postern gate on right) Tiryns reconstruction. Most of what you see is 13th century BC Tiryns: Plan & view of main entrance. 1-4 main gate; 28=west postern gate; 29=entrance to lower town; 10=courtyard; 18-20=Megaron; 22=back courtyard; 25=small Megaron; 12= tower; 11=staircase leading to south gallery; 8=east gallery. Below=3 (cf. Lion’s Gate) Tiryns: view of the corbelled galleries (Mycenaean bridges & dam) Tiryns, Megaron complex. Central hearth; large podium for throne; decorated floor with panels of dolphins & octopus The Palace of Nestor at Pylos. Excavated by Carl Blegen (American School) 1939, and again in the 1950s • Late, begins LH IIIA (ca. 1400), mostly ca. 1300-1200 BC • Megaron (30 x 55m), with fore court and magazine behind, set within a twostorey main block • NE storage building • SE shrine complex • Large western block with a Megaron-like hall at its center Pylos: Views of the megaron, with the magazines behind (much evidence for feasting). Right: painted floor in throne room (two theories: 1) imitates carpet; 2) imitates variegated stone. Note solitary octopus, focal point for furniture? Piet de Jong at work in Pylos (1950s) Pylos frescoes as restored: Procession; griffin & feline; running spiral (from various parts of the building) Pylos, Left: “Lyre-Player” fresco from the central hall or Throne Room; Right: another artist’s reconstruction of activities within the Throne Room Mycenaean Athens Mycenae: Plaster head, thought to be of sphinx. Probably late 13th century BC; 16.8cm tall. One of the few sculptures in the round Mycenae: Fresco of a woman • Probably LH IIIA, c. 1350 BC • Lacks the spontaneity of earlier Minoan • More monumental • Higgins: “statuesque, almost ponderous appearance…typical of Mycenaean taste” • Iconography includes: • Processions (as in Crete) • Plants used as stylized backgrounds • But, scenes of war and of the hunt, iconography non-existent on Crete • Stylization of jewelry & dress; misunderstanding of Minoan dress Left: House of the Idols (Mycenae) 14th cent. BC (holding grain; wearing seal) Procession fresco, Palace at Thebes, Minoan iconography presented in a Mycenaean idiom Mycenae frescoes Tiryns ring Tiryns chariot fresco Mycenae: warrior & rampart Scenes of war & the hunt Below: Mycenae, fresco of warrior & grooms Palace of Nestor at Pylos Handles (pommels) of Mycenaean swords Full set of bronze armor and a boars’ tusk helmet from a Mycenaean tomb at Dendra (near Mycenae) Bronze daggers inlaid with gold, silver, and niello (Grave Circle A, 1550-1500 BC). Powdered sulphides of copper, silver, gold, lead, with organic material (Ceremonial daggers?) Inlaid daggers & inlaid cups (right from Mycenae; silver) Silver “Siege” rhyton from Shaft Grave IV, Grave Circle A Vapheio cups (best examples of LBA plate to survive) • Found by Tsountas in the tholos tomb at Vapheio near Sparta • Ca. 1500 BC • Embossed outer case & a plain lining, all of gold • Each with spool-shaped handle attached with rivets • Each shows scenes of the capturing of bulls, perhaps for the arena (cf. bull leaping) • The 1st is the dumb way: all confusion • At center, bull trapped in net slung between two olive trees First Vapheio Cup • Bull’s body deliberately distorted • On either side a bull gallops away in fright • One bull has thrown a huntsman, while another is grappling with its horns, trying to mount it Details of the 1st Vapheio cup Second Vapheio cup interpreted by Evans: • As three episodes in the capture of a wild bull by means of a decoy cow (the smart way) • From right to left, the scene shows: • 1) the bull following the cow’s trail • 2) the bull & cow “conversing” (i.e. the bull making his move) • 3) bull captured by huntsmen, who tethers it by the hind leg • Minoan or Mycenaean? • Ellen Davis’s theory Elephant & hippo ivory Ulu Burun (Kaş) shipwreck • Elephant ivory primarily from Syria in the Bronze Age • Syrian elephant becomes extinct by the 9th century BC, though recent evidence suggest later • Hippopotamos (“River Horse”) found both in the Nile & the Orontes River (the latter in north Syria) • Much of the ivory is hippo, though the best quality in elephant • Ivories common 15th-12th century BC • Minoan or Mycenaean? Mycenae: male ivory heads (13th century BC) Chamber Tomb 27 Shrine Area Ivory pyxis, chamber tomb, Athens (late 15th century) Mycenae: two females in Minoan dress with child Ivories (13th – 12th centuries BC); Left: Mirror handle: warrior/hero with lion; Cypro-Mycenaean (Mycenaean refugees on Cyprus) Right: Meggido, Potnia Theron Φ and Ψ Figurines (Phi tend to be than Psi). Most common LH especially in earlier III, the 13th century BC Mycenae (House of the Idols) 14th century BC Terracotta Sarcophagoi (both Sub-Minoan/Post-Palatial [left] and Mycenaean [right]) used as bathtubs & burial containers Vapheio cup/tankard Rhyton Kylix/kylikes Stirrup jars (commodity containers, widely traded) Stirrup jars Mycenaean Pictorial Style (14th century B.C. and later) Cyprus or Greek mainland? Mycenaean Pictorial Style Chariot scene Mycenaean Pictorial Style Popular themes: warriors, chariots, bulls, and birds Earliest Greek pottery style to see attribution studies Warrior vase discovered by Heinrich Schliemann (Early 12th century BC) Collapse of the Mycenaean Way of Life • Mycenaeans overran Crete ca. 1450 B.C. and they dominated the Greek world from ca. 1400-1200 B.C. • Sea Peoples 13th – 12th century B.C. • Defeated by Ramesses III in a naval battle c. 1186 BC • Sherden or Shardana (Sardinia?); Palaset (Palestine?) • Invaders from the north (Dorian invasion[s]) (=the return of the Herakleidai, and the Doric dialect) • Doric dialect & the “revolution of the lower classes” • Balkanization • Potemkin palaces (imaginary cities/economies) • By the 12th century B.C. or so the Mycenaean way of life is over • Early Iron Age begins ca. 1125/1100 B.C. and lasts for centuries ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2012 for the course CLASSIC 51a taught by Professor Papadapolous during the Spring '12 term at UCLA.

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