Unformatted text preview: To Tell the Truth or Liar, Liar, Pants On Fire!
Vince Waldron Professor, Communication Studies [email protected] Overview Why is deception detection important? How accurate are human lie detectors? What communication tools can we use? What behavioral cues really work? What biases must we overcome? How can we improve our odds? What behaviors do we expect from liars? What is Interpersonal Deception? "The intentional manipulation of information to mislead another person and influence their behavior without their consent" Definitional Issues: "White" Lies vs. "High Stakes" lies At the intersection of ethics and science Why is it important? Is that new car really a good deal? Is that witness telling the truth? Should you hire that new employee? Is that politician honest? Is your child really doing "ok" in school? Did that student really miss class because "grandma died"? "Professional" Lie Catchers
Police officers Prosecutors Judges Secret Service * Customs Officers Teachers Moms? *70% detection (Eckman et. al., 1992) Telling The Truth? Truth Tellers? Will they find the truth? How accurate are "human lie detectors"? Across 100 studies, accuracy rate was 54% (DePaulo et al, 2002; Vrij, 2000) Chance (guessing) detection is 50%! "Training effect" = 4% across 20 studies Frank & Feeley, 1994) But what about "professionals"? Most Studies: only 50% Individual Differences: up to 7580% The Nonverbal "Toolbox" Eye Gaze Kinesics Proxemics Illustators Adaptors "Leaks" Facial Expression Chronometrics (pausing) Haptics Paralinguistics What's the Message? What's He Thinking? Who Are They? Interaction Clues Immediacy Turn taking Cooperation Coherence Gaze Aversion? Speech hesitations or pauses? Disfluencies or speech errors? Fidgeting? Hands or body? Excessive Smiling? Inconsistency A lengthening nose? Lying Stereotypes: Expectations? What does the research say?
Results of 40 Studies(Vrij,2000) Face: pupil dilation, blinking Body: decreased leaking, especially hands and fingers Speech: higher pitch, shorter answers, slower talk, more pauses, hesitations, & errors Channel discrepancies No Pinocchio's nose! Verbal cues Not as good as nonverbal! Negative statements Irrelevant statements Noninvovlement ("Those people") Leveling Terms: "Whatever", "you know" Too much information or too little detail Why is detection hard? Overreliance on stereotypes Ambiguity of NV behavior Wrong cues are used Overconfidence Cognitive load Liars are under control Arousal has multiple sources Detection biases Truth Bias (assume truthfulness) Attractiveness bias Similarity/difference biases Probing bias Motivational biases Suspicion What do you think? Do You Promise To Tell The Whole Truth? Improve Your Odds Develop a baseline Use multiple cues Look for discrepancies Use multiple observers Look for "leaking" Get it in writing! Disregard obvious cues Improve your odds Take your time Ask questions Get "off script" Get good references Don't accept vague explanations Forget the stereotypes Text And Presentation Vince Waldron Graphics Laura Waldron For More Information: Email [email protected] Phone (602) 543 6634 ...
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- Spring '08
- Nonverbal Communication, Lie, human lie detectors, Vince Waldron