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Unformatted text preview: Guidance and Counselling
Block-1 Introduction to Guidance and Counselling 
Unit-1 Understanding Guidance
Unit-2 Understanding Counselling
Unit-3 Guidance in the Classroom
Unit-4 Personnel in the Guidance Programme Block-2 Techniques and Procedures of Guidance 
Unit-5 Techniques of Guidance
Unit-6 Guidance Programme
Unit-7 Occupational Information
Unit-8 Group Guidance Block-3 Career Development 
Unit-9 Approaches to Career Development
Unit-10 Nature of Work
Unit-11 Career Patterns
Unit-12 Career Development of Girls in India Block-4 Guiding Students with Special Problems 
Unit-13 Behavioural Problems of Students
Unit-14 Socio-Emotional Problems of Students with Handicap
Unit-15 Problems of Deprived Students
Unit-16 Guiding Students with Special Problems UNIT 1 UNDERSTANDING GUIDANCE
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives 1.3 Guidance : An Introduction 1.4 5 1.3.1 Nature of Guidance 1.3.2 Purpose of Guidance 1.3.3 Scope of Guidance 1.3.4
1.3.5 Need for Gu~dance
Prrnclples of Guidance Types of Guidance
1.4.1 Educiitional Guidance 1.4.2 Vocat~onalGu~dance 1.4.3 Personal-Social Guidance 1.4.4 The Other Types 1.5 Guidance and its Relation with Educatio~~ 1.6 Let Us Sum Up 1.7 Unit-end Exercises 1.1 INTRODUCTION
You must have observed that there are times when students do not pay any attention in
the class, do not respond at all, and are antagonistic as well. There are also instances
when they lag behind in studies, academic achievement is very low and to compliment it
further, there is no motivation and lack of concentration. Further, when they want to
select a particular subject for higher studies they are at a loss to decide anything. Also,
there are periods when they do not want to come to school at all, day dream a lot in the
classroom, are least interested in socializillg or show aggressive behaviour.
Above mentioned problems could be an expressioil of ~naladjustme~lts
in the areas of
physical, emotional, social, moral and spiritual develop~nentand a teacher has a
responsibility to understand these problems and depending on the intensity of problems
either to provide necessary guidance or to refer such students to professioilally trained
person for guidance. Guidance serves as a supporting function in the educatio~lalprocess
by directing and controlling activities to help each individual develop to hislher fullest
In this unit we shall discuss the nature, purpose and scope, need for guidance, principles
of guidance, types of guidance and its relation with education. 1.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this ftnit, you will be ablc to:
a explain the nature, purpose, scope and need of guidance; a list the various principles of guidance; a describe the types of guidance; and a relate it's relationship with education. Introduction to Guidallce and
Cou~~sellia~ 1.3 GUIDANCE : AN INTRODUCTION
1.3.1 Nature of Guidance
Guidance covers the whole process of education which starts from the birth of the child.
As t h e i~~dividuals
need help throughout their lives, it is not wrong to say that guidance
is needed from cradle to grave.
If we consider the literal meaning, to guide means to indicate, to point out, to show the
way. It means more than to assist. If an individual slips on the road we assist himlher to
get ufl hut we do not guide him unless we help himlher to go in a certain direction.
The t&rmguidance is related to all types of education-formal, non-formal, vocational,
etc. wherein the aim is to help the individual to adjust to hislher environment in an
affective way. It can also he said that guidance is given to individuals in making
appropriate choices and adjustments. Guidance has been defined from different points
According to Good, "Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationship
designed to influepce the attitude and subsequent bel~aviourof the person". In this
definition, emphasis is given on interpersonal relationships, which play a great role in
determiniilg the degree of success the i~ldividualwill achieve in the society. And through
guidafice, the individual can be llelped to develop desirable attitudes and behaviour
AccorZling to National Vocational Guidance Association, "Guidance is the process of
helping a person to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of himlherself and hislher role in the world of work, to test this concept against reality and to
convett it into reality with satisfactioil to himlherself and benefit to society".
McDonald opines that the purpose of guidance is to help the students a ~ teachers
acquiring desirable abilities and skills rather than to achieve the ends of educational
programmes. In his words, "Guidance is a facilitative service, it does not understake to
carry out the objectives of educational programmes; rather it attends to provide aids to
pupils and staff to help pupils determine the courses most appropriate to their needs and
abilities, find instructors who will he more sympathatic to their individual requirements
and setk out activities, which will help them realize their potentialities".
Mathewson (1962) defined guidance as " the systeinatic professional process of helping
the individual through educative and interpretive procedures to gain a better understanding
of hislher own characteristics and potentialities and to relate himlherself more
satisfactorily to social requirelnents and opportunities, in accord with social and moral
values. According to this definition guidance is an assistance given to individuals through
various procedures so that slhe is able to understand the social requirements and
opportonities and to know the ways and means to adjust himlherself to these.
When all these definitioi~sare reviewed it clears that guidance is a service which aims to
help the individual attain hislher full maturity and he of service to society and it is also
regarded as an instrument yvhich helps in the realization of general objectives of education.
Many have emphasized the dynamic nature of guidance. This will be more clearly
understandable when we consider counselling in the context of guidance.
Guidance and Counselling: It is not uncommon to lind the expression, "Guidance and
Counselling" or "Counselling and Guidance" in lay magazines and periodicals today
hut there are similarities as well as differences between guidance and counselling.
I Counsellling represents only one of the services to be found Ijn guidance programme,
whereas guidauce touches all aspects of life and it tries to held the individual in solving
hidher problems. The term counselling covers a wide area of pyocedures, advice giving,
psychounalysis etc. Moses and Moses have also pointed out the siinilaritics between
counselling a11d guidance, " Within the guidance services, counselling may be,Jhought
of as the core of helping process." 1 1.3.2 Purpose of Guidance
Guidance is to help one to adjust to abilities, interests and needs of the society. In other
words it tneans helping a person to develop in the desired direction and to orient him/
herself according to the needs and demands of changing times and socie~y.
The purpose of guidance at elenientury school level is focussed on kusistit~gpupils to
integrate such primary groups forces as the home, the school, rel~gionant1 tlie peerrelationshtps. These are the forces which form the base Ihr tlie students' adolescence,
then blend those forces into a harmonious whole.
At secondary school level it is centrally focussetl upon differentiating aspects ol'tliese
forces as they effect the pupils knowledge, acceptance, and tlirect~onol' him/lierself.
Secondary guidance services have as their focus the assistance given to the siudents to
clevelop theinselves according to their potentialities and opportunities in tlie iu.eas of
educational planning, career choice, interpersonal relationships and interpersonal
Thus the purpose of guidance is to improve the capability of the individual to ~intlerstand
and dcal with self-situational relations for greater personal satisfaction and social
which includes students, teacher, parents, etc.
Contribution to students:
a) to help them understantl themselves by knowing inore about their abilities. aptiludcs,
interests and limitations. b) to get along better with other people and understand the world in which they live. c) to get the most out of school by gaining information regarding career, s~tbjects,etc. d) to explore thcir own interests, abilities, learn about vario~tsaspects of the world of
work and learn to make most of their ilbili~ies. e) in recogniztng giftcd and slow learners and students having spec~alneeds and helping
them to develop proper attitude and make tnaximum use of thcir potential ability. Aid to the teacher
I. to increase teachers' understanding ol'thcil. stutlents
Guidance offers opport~~nities
through tnservice education progralntnes carried on by tlie guidance person. The
school counsellor assists in administering in testing programmes and in familiarizing
teachers with the interpretation of the tests. These test results give information which
assists teachers to belter understand their students' classroom belioviour and
performance. 2. Data on students' special interests, capabilities and past experiences are provided
on the comulative record by the guidance fitculty. Knowledge about stutlents'
physical condition, medical his~ory,family background, scholastic record, scores
on standardized tests, personal characteristics, etc. help the teacher to provide betler
instruction to the student. 3. Beneficial to the parents:
To give clearer perception of the child's intelligence, abilities, interests and
potentialities, the programme helps the parent know, understand and accept tlie child
as helslie is. 4. To assist the total conimunity population towards better mental health. 5. Help the entire school in many ways. e.g. by aiding students in their choice of
courses by counselling on the basis of their interest and aptitutles. Give administration
information on those aspects of the school programme which relate to tlie educational
career and personality developnient of the students. IJndcrstanding Guidance 1.3.3 Scope of Guidance
The stope of guidance covers the following areas:
Ibdividual and curriculum: I. 2. q) Academic achievement and progress. ) Persolla1 development through curricular and co-curricular activities. Personal-social relations of the individual in school: 3. 4) Understanding of self and the relations of personal characteristics to each other
and to hehaviour. la) Understanding of others and relations with them. Educational, vocational requirement and opportunities vis-a-vis the individual: a) Preparing to me,et future education and occupational requirements. $) Utilization of appropriate opportunities - educational and vocational areas. We may now take up each one of the above mentioned areas of guidance to understand
the scope of educational and vocational guidance. a) Academic achievement and progress: Sometimes it so happen that a student's 1. scholastic achievement is low hut shows high I.Q. In such a case guidance
worker can find out with the help of certain psychological tests as to where the
weakness lies and thus help the student to come up to the desired levels, or
sometimes the student has certain problems relating to studies that helshe is
not able to cope up with in hislher academics, guidance worker can be effective
in such situations. b) Personal development: Guidance programmes are so designed that personal
I developineilt of students is nurtured optimally. 2. Personal-social relations: Getting aioiig well with others is an indicator that aperson
is well adjusted in the society. Guidance helpsin understanding one's self to deal
effectively with others. 3. Relation of the individual to educational and vocational requirements: Guidance
helps the individual to make effective decisions at different stages of life such as
choice of subjects, career selection, by providing necessary information related
different careers and their allied fields. h) ('omparc your ;m\wers wilh Ihosc glvcn ;11l l ~ cc11d ot rhc block. I. ~ a l c 1tile
I Set 13 Set A i) Rclatron of
curricl~lum intlividllal to the ii) pcl-son;~l-soci;l 1 rcI;\tions o I' thc
stuclcnls i l l hchool ;I) I ! n d c r s t ; ~ n d i ~ ~o sf olhcrs 211ld of'
rcl;rt~onhwith them. h) Acatlcmlc :~chievcmc.ntand pnlgrehs. iiij R e l a l i o n of the slIItlcllt LO
and opportunities ,) iv) Personal-soci:il rclalions ot' Ihc
stude~ltin school d) ~ j t i l i z a t i o I l (,f
vocational. I [ ~ n d c ~ s l ; l I l d j n g s e l f 2nd
relations of p c r s o n ~ ~chanicrorislics
to c i ~ i)tllcr
~ l ~;111d10 hehaviour. 8. Earlier, there was not much consciousness as well as awareness about various job
opportunities. A farmer's son would opt for a farming profession and a lawyer's son
for the law profession, irrespective of their aptitudelinterest for that profession.
Through guidance, students can be helped to select courses according to their
abilities, interests and aptitudes. 9. With the values going down and religions and moral exploitations by people with
vested interests, need for guidance for students has become necessary to enable
them to select a right path so that they develop their own thought and action in
religion and morality, rather tham being misled by others. Understanding Guidance 10. Guidance is also needed for an overall personality development of individuals. 11. Our country has certain problem areas where guidance is needed. These areas are,
caste problems, new economic policies and problems of retired persons.
12. With the change in the traditional image of women, more problems of divorce and
separation are coming up. Guidance is needed to create a balance in the family
Thus, the role of guidance continues throughout the life-span, from cradle to grave. r Check. Your Progress Notes : a) Write your answers in the space given below.
b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the block. 2. State whether the following statements an: true or false by putting a
appropriate letter, I i) ( iii Guidance l~elpsin putting round pegs in square holes. I (iuidallce assists. 'educated unemployed'. 'd' over tllc
I iiu) Guidance is not needed to solve the problems of disc~plineand delinquency.
increases stress :lsd irustrationr. (TIP) v) Ciu~dancehelps ilk u~riprovinginterpersonal relations. vi) Gu~danceshows right path to tht: individuals. (TIP) VII) Guida~lcecaters only to educational needs 01' the studeots. (TIE:) ( IF) 1.3.5 Principles of Guidance
Guidance is based on certain principles. It is mandatory that we should understand the
basic principles of any discipline before attempting to gain and utilize the knowledge of
various operations involved in the application of knowledge to human life. Before we
study these principles, it'll be desirable to keep in view the following statements. \ "Guidance includes the sum total of efforts and intluence of all those who assist an
individual through association, counsel, dissemination of facts, employment of
appropriate and special techniques and control of environment, to reach one's optimum,
personal, social, vocational, cultural and spiritual development."
The principles of Guidance are: 1. Guidance is a life long process: Guidance is a continuous process, which starts
from childhood and continues till death. It is not a service which begins and
terminates at specified time or place.
2. Guidance lays emphasis on individualization: It emphasizes that each individual
should be given freedom to shape hislher personality and helshe should be guided
whenever b e need arises.
The democratic point was stressed by Truman L. Kellys when he said, "Guidance
should capitalize the high points of each students' protile of abilities add aptitudes
'rather than basing the advisement of hislher general average". 13 Introdociion to Guidance and
Counselling For individualizing the education at different levels so that each individual develop
hisiher abilities, interests and aptitudes in unique ways, proper organization of
guidance services is very essential.
3. Gliidance gives importance to self-direction: The main idea of Guidance is to
develop the individual s o that slhe no longer finds ~t necessary to seek guidance.
~ u k d a n c emakes the indiv~dualbetter adjusted to herlhis environment and leads
he~rlhimto self-reliance ancl self-direction. A student who tries to seek help asks
and may even ~mplorethe counsellor to tell himlher how to solve hin~llierdifficulties.
B L Iappreciates
it more when herlhe is shown several alternative procedures which
slhp could adopt together w ~ t hprobable results of each. 4. Gutdance is based on co-operation: Guidance depends on lnutual co-operation o f
indkviduals. No one can he forced to seek guidance without the consent of the
individual herlhimself. 5. Guida~iceis for all: Guidance looks towards the development in each individual's
pottntialitics. Although malnc!justed students receive more of cou~~sellor's
theihasic principle of g u ~ d a n c eis that i t should not he available to the few hut rather
to hany. It'll be of great use to devote attention to normal and superior children
also in an altempt'to stinlulate their intellectual growth. 6. Gujda~iceis an organized activity: Guidance is not an incidental activity. Inspite
of being a hroad based programme, i t has a definite purpose to achieve. It is therefore
a syistematic and well-organi~edactivity. 7. Guiidancc wol-kers need special preparation: It is generally agreed that in addition
to general survey course in guidance, which should certainly be regarded as a
minlimum essential in the preparation of all the teachers. The specialists need
conbiderable background study i n Psychology including child and adolescent
devqlopmcnt, rnental h y g i c ~ ~ant1
e some course work with practical experience.
Theguidance worker should also know what agericies and resources are available
in h/s/lier community so that tlie individuals seeking help should be ~ ~ hto
Alohgwith this, periodic appraisals shoulcl be made of the existing school guidance
proyramlne. 8. Gui6ance gives respect to iiidividual differences: No two individuals are alike.
Gi~idanceunderstands these intlivitlual differences among students ant1 is co~icerned
with the uniqueness of needs, problems, and developmental characteristics of
intli$idui~ls. 9. Guidance takes into consideration reference to salient facts: The most dangerous
having at hand pertinent data. Guidance
of all guidance practices is to coi~nselw~tlioi~t
in the absence of data is quackery. To administer guidance intelligently and with as
thorqugh knowledge as possible, progl-iIlilnies of individual evaluation and research
shou~ldhe conducted and accurate c ~ ~ m u l a t i vrecords
of progress and achievement
shoulld bc made available to guidiunce workers. 10. ~ u i 4 a n c eis flexible: An organized guidance programme should be flexible
accohding to intlividuai and conirnunity needs. I I . G ~ i i d l a ~ l cise an interrelated activity: Effective guidance needs complete
information aboi~tthe intl~vidualbecausc it is diflicult to see any problem in isolation
w~thQutco-relating it with the total progrumnle. For example, eclucational, vocat~onal
;ind Oersonal-social guidancc arc interrelated but c o i ~ l dhe distinguished as different
aspeqts of the total guidance programme.
12. ~ u i d e i l c eel~ipliasizeson code of ethics: The ethical applications of guidance
include respect for tlie perso~lalityof the individuals being counselled. Understanding Guidance I l ~ u t e s , :21) Write your anawers i s the spilcc give11below. I t?j Compare your aiiswers with those given at the en...
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