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chapter_11--study_guide - Chapter 11-Study Guide Student 1...

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1 Chapter 11--Study Guide Student: 1. are psychoactive substances that are among the most likely to produce physical dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. These substances include alcohol and anxiolytic drugs. A. Opioids B. Depressants C. Stimulants D. Hallucinogens 2. Two important aspects of a definition of substance dependence are and . A. tolerance; withdrawal B. withdrawal; relapse C. relapse; tolerance D. alcohol delirium; tolerance 3. Hallucinogenic drugs A. include LSD. B. occur naturally in a variety of plants. C. can be produced synthetically. D. all of the above 4. People who abuse or are dependent upon alcohol 5. Which of the following is characteristic of nicotine? 6. Caffeine is a that affects the brain stem by .
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2 7. A probable psychological cause of substance-related disorders is A. positive reinforcement. B. negative reinforcement. C. both a and b D. none of the above 8. is a method in which a drug with a similar chemical makeup is given in place of an addictive drug, and are used to block the effects of psychoactive drugs. 9. Alcohol may influence which of the following systems? 10. The term opioids refers to substances that have a narcotic effect, while opiates are that have a narcotic effect. 11. Which of the following is not considered in the text as a cognitive factor related to causes of substance-related disorders? A. sense triggers B. expectancy effect C. opponent process theory - negative reinforcement D. none of the above
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