Chapter 8.45 as handout

Chapter 8.45 as handout - 8.4 screening Endothermic, so...

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1 8.3 What do you think happens to the size of the atom if we add or remove an electron from it, to make an anion or cation? 8.3 Comparison of Atomic Radii with Ionic Radii Electrons in the same shell repel one another, so adding an electron increases the radius. Removing an electron decreases the radius. A cation is always smaller than the atom from which it was formed. An anion is always larger than the atom from which it was formed. 8.3
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2 8.3 The Radii (in pm) of Ions of Familiar Elements F 72 186 Na isoelectronic Ionization energy is the minimum energy (kJ/mol) required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state. X 2+ ( g) X 3+ ( g) + e - first ionization energy = I 1 second ionization energy = I 2 third ionization energy = I 3 8.4 I 1 < I 2 < I 3 X + ( g) X 2+ ( g) + e - X ( g) X + ( g) + e - Doing chemistry requires moving electrons around. The ionization energy gives an idea of how hard it is to remove electrons, and therefore how reactive an atom is.
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Unformatted text preview: 8.4 screening Endothermic, so energies are positive 3 8.4 Variation of the First Ionization Energy with Atomic Number Overall Trends in First Ionization Energies 8.4 Increasing First Ionization Energy Increasing First Ionization Energy Electron affinity is the negative of the energy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion. X ( g) + e-X- ( g) 8.5 F ( g) + e-X- ( g) O ( g) + e-O- ( g) H = -328 kJ/mol EA = + 328 kJ/mol H = -141 kJ/mol EA = + 141 kJ/mol Again, doing chemistry requires moving electrons around. The electron affinity gives an idea of how easy it is to add electrons, and therefore how reactive an atom is. 4 8.5 8.5 Variation of Electron Affinity With Atomic Number (H Ba)...
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Chapter 8.45 as handout - 8.4 screening Endothermic, so...

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