GG271.pdf - find more resources at oneclass.com URBAN...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 44 pages.

URBAN CONCEPTS AND URBAN ORIGINS Four major functional theories of urban origin 1 Hydraulic theories - surplus production 2 Economic theories - centre around trade 3 Military theories - focus on defence 4 Religious theories - advocate the importance of religion, role of priests, and territorial allegiance. the concepts of "nuclear urbanism" and "diffusion of cities" are presented along with the basic process and products of urban evolution. The course of human life has been changed by three revolutions: agricultural, urban, and industrial. 1. development of agriculture and permanent village settlement 2. responsible for the growth of cities 3. major industrial urban centres URBAN CONCEPT Max Weber's (1958) conceptualization emphasized trade-commercial relations. associates with the city are: fortification for defence presence of a market coast, and partial independence Criticism 1. excluded all Oriental cities. Urbanism was only a Western phenomenon 2. defence as a universal attribute. Not all cities were developed as garrison centres. Wheatley (1971), Redfield (1947) and Writh (1938) tend to stress the functional differences between rural and urban communities - social stratification. The characteristic features of cities that differentiate them from rural centres are: the presence of a literate population; movement from familial association to more individualism; focus on political and administrative structures; depersonalisation; the presence of legal institutions, and; a marked degree of hetrogenity. Childe (1950) who suggested nine characteristics which he considered to be essential in defining a city: 1 Size - Size of population find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com
City size was largely determined by the availability of surplus food . 2 Function and Composition - population into agriculturists and non - agriculturalists. The latter group was engaged in specialised functions. 3 Public Buildings - the presence of public buildings (temples) Mesopotamia - important public buildings were temples Egypt - temples and pyramids as burial places for the Pharaohs Indus Valley - granaries for store surplus food monumental buildings - symbols of religious and political power and sustain the artists. 4 Taxation Mesopotamia and Egypt - obtained in the form of agricultural products 5 Trade - surplus agricultural production surplus used to pay for imported raw materials The emergence and growth of long distance trade is a major feature 6 Records - inherent need to keep records invention of scripts initially form of pictographs later replaced by symbols. 7 Development of Exact Sciences scripts helped the recording of geometry, arithmetic and astronomy. Early civilisations recorded on the temples and public buildings.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture